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PPARG peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5468, updated on 14-Oct-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
PPARGprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gammaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9236
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000132170 MIM:601487; Vega:OTTHUMG00000129764
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GLM1; CIMT1; NR1C3; PPARG1; PPARG2; PPARgamma
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Three subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, PPAR-gamma has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Biased expression in fat (RPKM 44.7), urinary bladder (RPKM 10.3) and 11 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PPARG in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
3p25.2
Exon count:
14
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 3 NC_000003.12 (12287485..12471054)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (12329349..12475855)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene synapsin II Neighboring gene MT-CO1 pseudogene 5 Neighboring gene glutathione S-transferase mu 5 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene RNA, 5S ribosomal pseudogene 123 Neighboring gene tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit 2 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 377, pseudogene

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Carotid intimal medial thickness 1
MedGen: C1836302 OMIM: 609338 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs
Diabetes mellitus type 2
MedGen: C0011860 OMIM: 125853 GeneReviews: Not available
not available
Familial partial lipodystrophy 3
MedGen: C1720861 OMIM: 604367 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs
Obesity
MedGen: C0028754 OMIM: 601665 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study for circulating levels of PAI-1 provides novel insights into its regulation.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Limited contribution of common genetic variants to risk for liver injury due to a variety of drugs.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Replication of genome-wide association signals in UK samples reveals risk loci for type 2 diabetes.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates PPARgamma expression in human mesenchymal stem cells PubMed
env In human osteoblast (hOB) cell lines, HIV-1 Gag and gp120 reduce RUNX-2 and PPAR-gamma mRNA expression and activity PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef suppresses PPAR-gamma expression in human T and macrophage cell lines, and the effects of PPAR-gamma on viral replication is reduced by co-expression of Nef in MT4 T cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag In human osteoblast (hOB) cell lines, HIV-1 Gag and gp120 reduce RUNX-2 and PPAR-gamma mRNA expression and activity PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of ICAM1 and VCAM1 is inhibited by PPARG likely via AKT signalling in hCMEC/D3 cells PubMed
tat Sera from high viral load HIV-1-infected individuals induce a clear proadipogenic phenotype with increased expression of adipogenic markers including LPL and PPARgamma by HIV-1 Tat-mediated inhibition of COUP TF-1 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat enhances the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) toward adipogenesis by the transcription and activity upregulation of PPARgamma PubMed
tat The endogenous PPARgamma ligand 15d-PGJ2 inhibits HIV-1 Tat-induced MCP-1 production in human microglia-like cells PubMed
tat PPARalpha and PPARgamma over-expression prevent Tat-induced binding activity and transactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB PubMed
tat Over-expression of PPARalpha or PPARgamma attenuates Tat-induced up-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CCL2, and E-selectin PubMed
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif downregulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) in Vif-expression T cells PubMed
matrix gag HIV-1 MA downregulates PPARG gene expression in HepG2 cells PubMed
gag Treatment of human PBMCs with HIV-1 MA upregulates the expression of MCP-1, ICAM-1, CD40, CD86 and CD36 and downregulates the expression of nuclear receptors FXR and PPARgamma PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
  • AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
  • Adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe different classess of factors involved in adipogenesis are shown. Adipogenesis is the process by which fat cells differentiate from predadipocytes to adipocytes (fat cells). Adipose tissue, compo...
  • Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
    Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes
  • Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystemThis is currently not a pathway but a list of circadian rhythm related genes and proteins. The source for this information is the gene ontology. The genes and proteins were filtered for "circadian rh...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Differentiation of white and brown adipocyte, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Differentiation of white and brown adipocyte, organism-specific biosystemDevelopment of white versus brown adipocytes (figure from Handbook of Obesity). Transcription factors and nuclear regulators controlling the development of white versus brown adipocytes are shown in ...
  • Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and of the triacylglycerols and ketone bodies derived from them form a closely interrelated, coordinately regulated module that plays a central...
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or t...
  • Huntington's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Huntington's disease, organism-specific biosystemHuntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality...
  • Huntington's disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Huntington's disease, conserved biosystemHuntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality...
  • Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystemRegulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible ...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • NAD metabolism, sirtuins and aging, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    NAD metabolism, sirtuins and aging, organism-specific biosystemA model for DNA damage, inflammation, NAD+, and aging. Two key events, the activation of PARP by DNA damage and the decreased NAMPT expression associated with inflammation, lead to decreased SIRT1 an...
  • Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway
  • Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway, organism-specific biosystemA classic example of bifunctional transcription factors is the family of Nuclear Receptor (NR) proteins. These are DNA-binding transcription factors that bind certain hormones, vitamins, and other s...
  • Nuclear Receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nuclear Receptors, organism-specific biosystemNuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within the interior of cells that are responsible for sensing the presence of steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules. In response, th...
  • Nuclear Receptors in Lipid Metabolism and Toxicity, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nuclear Receptors in Lipid Metabolism and Toxicity, organism-specific biosystemNuclear receptors are transcription factors that are activated upon binding to its ligands. Initially, they had been classified as classic endocrine nuclear hormone receptors and orphan receptors. Ho...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • PPAR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PPAR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) s...
  • PPAR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PPAR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) s...
  • PPARA activates gene expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PPARA activates gene expression, organism-specific biosystemThe set of genes regulated by PPAR-alpha is not fully known in humans, however many examples have been found in mice. Genes directly activated by PPAR-alpha contain peroxisome proliferator receptor e...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), organism-specific biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is the major regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the liver. PPARalpha is also the target of fibrate drugs used to treat abnormal plasma ...
  • Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of retinoblastoma protein
  • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I
  • Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling, organism-specific biosystemSterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are membrane-bound proteins that act as transcription factors. They regulate lipid, especially cholesterol, biosynthesis and uptake at a transcript...
  • Thyroid cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid cancer, organism-specific biosystemThyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cel...
  • Thyroid cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid cancer, conserved biosystemThyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cel...
  • Transcription factor regulation in adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Transcription factor regulation in adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe transcription factors involved in adipogenesis are shown in the current pathway. Adipogensis is the biological proces of cell differentation in which preadipocytes are converted into adipocytes.
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystemAdipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. During this process the preadipocytes cease to proliferate, begin to accumulate lipid droplets and develo...
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystemWNT signal, through the canonical pathway, controls cell fate determination and through the non-canonical pathway controls cell movement and tissue polarity. The name "wnt" is a fusion of two terms, ...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DBD domain binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISM
Inferred from Sequence Model
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
E-box binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
LBD domain binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
activating transcription factor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
alpha-actinin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
arachidonic acid binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
chromatin binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
double-stranded DNA binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
drug binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
drug binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
estrogen receptor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
fatty acid binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
lipid binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear receptor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear receptor transcription coactivator activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear receptor transcription coactivator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
peptide binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin receptor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein C-terminus binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphatase binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein self-association IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
proximal promoter DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
retinoid X receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
retinoid X receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
contributes_to sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
steroid hormone receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transcription factor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transcription regulatory region DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
transcription regulatory region DNA binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
animal organ regeneration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell differentiation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell fate commitment ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cell maturation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to hyperoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to insulin stimulus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to insulin stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to insulin stimulus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cellular response to low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to prostaglandin E stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to retinoic acid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to vitamin E IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
epithelial cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
fatty acid metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
fatty acid oxidation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
glucose homeostasis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
heart development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hormone-mediated signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
lipid homeostasis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
lipid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
lipoprotein transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
long-chain fatty acid transport ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
low-density lipoprotein particle receptor biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
monocyte differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
multicellular organism development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of acute inflammatory response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell growth IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cholesterol storage IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cholesterol storage IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of pancreatic stellate cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of receptor biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of sequestering of triglyceride IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of telomerase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
placenta development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of DNA binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fat cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of fatty acid oxidation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of blood pressure IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cholesterol transporter activity IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
regulation of circadian rhythm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of lipid metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of transcription involved in cell fate commitment ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
response to caffeine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to cold IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to estrogen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to immobilization stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lipid IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to lipid ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
response to mechanical stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to metformin IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to nutrient TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to retinoic acid IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to retinoic acid IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to starvation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to vitamin A IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
rhythmic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
white fat cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
white fat cell differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
RNA polymerase II transcription factor complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
RNA polymerase II transcription factor complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
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PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
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PubMed 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
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protein-containing complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Names
PPAR-gamma
nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3
peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor gamma variant 1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_011749.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..151507
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001330615.1NP_001317544.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region and lacks an alternate exon in the 3' coding region, resulting in a frameshift and different 3' UTR, compared to variant 2. It encodes isoform 3, which is shorter and contains distinct N- and C-termini, compared to isoform 2.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC091492, AJ698135, BQ003677
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS87046.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    E9PFX5, Q4W448
    Related
    ENSP00000380196.1, ENST00000397000.5
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
    cl11397
    Location:209245
    NR_LBD; The ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-activated transcription regulators
  2. NM_001354666.1NP_001341595.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6), as well as variants 1, 3, 4, and 7, encodes isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB565476
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2610.2
    Related
    ENSP00000380205.2, ENST00000397010.6
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:209476
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
  3. NM_001354667.1NP_001341596.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7), as well as variants 1, 3, 4, and 6, encodes isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC090947, AC091492, AC093174
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2610.2
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:209476
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
  4. NM_001354668.1NP_001341597.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC090947, AC093174, AJ563369
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06965
    Location:138221
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:31108
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
    cl11397
    Location:237274
    NR_LBD; The ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-activated transcription regulators
  5. NM_001354669.1NP_001341598.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC090947, AC091492, AC093174
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd06932
    Location:34265
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
  6. NM_001354670.1NP_001341599.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 6

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC090947, AC091492, AJ563370
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
    cl11397
    Location:209246
    NR_LBD; The ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-activated transcription regulators
  7. NM_005037.5NP_005028.4  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005028.4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region compared to variant 2. Variants 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 all encode the same isoform (1), which has a shorter, distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 2.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC090947, AC091492, AC093174
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2610.2
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P37231
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    D2KUA6
    Related
    ENSP00000380210.2, OTTHUMP00000207750, ENST00000397015.6, OTTHUMT00000339531
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:209476
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
  8. NM_015869.4NP_056953.2  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_056953.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) encodes the longest isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC090947, AC093174, U63415
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2609.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P37231
    Related
    ENSP00000287820.6, OTTHUMP00000160185, ENST00000287820.10, OTTHUMT00000251979
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:237504
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:138221
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:31108
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
  9. NM_138711.3NP_619725.2  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_619725.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region compared to variant 2. Variants 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 all encode the same isoform (1), which has a shorter, distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 2.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC090947, AC091492, BC006811
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2610.2
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P37231
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    D2KUA6
    Related
    ENSP00000380207.2, OTTHUMP00000160186, ENST00000397012.6, OTTHUMT00000251980
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:209476
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
  10. NM_138712.3NP_619726.2  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_619726.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region compared to variant 2. Variants 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 all encode the same isoform (1), which has a shorter, distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 2.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC090947, AC091492, BC006811, BG323933
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2610.2
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P37231
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    D2KUA6
    Related
    ENSP00000312472.6, OTTHUMP00000185034, ENST00000309576.10, OTTHUMT00000290125
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:209476
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    12287485..12471054
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011533844.1XP_011532146.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform X4

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    E9PFX5
    Related
    OTTHUMP00000185036, OTTHUMT00000290127
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
    cl11397
    Location:209245
    NR_LBD; The ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-activated transcription regulators
  2. XM_024453604.1XP_024309372.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform X1

    Related
    ENSP00000495840.1, ENST00000643197.1
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:209476
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
  3. XM_024453605.1XP_024309373.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:209476
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
  4. XM_024453606.1XP_024309374.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06932
    Location:209476
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:110193
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:380
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
  5. XM_011533842.2XP_011532144.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06965
    Location:138221
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:31108
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
    cl11397
    Location:237426
    NR_LBD; The ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-activated transcription regulators
  6. XM_011533843.2XP_011532145.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform X3

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd06965
    Location:138221
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    pfam12577
    Location:31108
    PPARgamma_N; PPAR gamma N-terminal region
    cl11397
    Location:237273
    NR_LBD; The ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-activated transcription regulators
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