U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Send to:

Choose Destination

INS-IGF2 INS-IGF2 readthrough [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 723961, updated on 23-Nov-2023


Official Symbol
INS-IGF2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
INS-IGF2 readthroughprovided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000129965 AllianceGenome:HGNC:33527
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
This locus includes two alternatively spliced read-through transcript variants which align to the INS gene in the 5' region and to the IGF2 gene in the 3' region. One transcript is predicted to encode a protein which shares the N-terminus with the INS protein but has a distinct and longer C-terminus, whereas the other transcript is a candidate for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). The transcripts are imprinted and are paternally expressed in the limb and eye. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Biased expression in placenta (RPKM 1227.5) and liver (RPKM 104.8) See more
Try the new Gene table
Try the new Transcript table

Genomic context

See INS-IGF2 in Genome Data Viewer
Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 11 NC_000011.10 (2129117..2161209, complement)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 11 NC_060935.1 (2216758..2248857, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (2150347..2182439, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23 Neighboring gene H19/IGF2 enhancer region Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:2018584-2019431 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1219 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:2034666-2035394 Neighboring gene H19/IGF2 imprinting control region Neighboring gene microRNA 675 Neighboring gene H19 imprinted maternally expressed transcript Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:2118490-2119132 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:2121061-2121703 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:2121704-2122345 Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr11:2135598-2135868 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:2148496-2149320 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:2155593-2156179 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:2158413-2159034 Neighboring gene microRNA 483 Neighboring gene insulin like growth factor 2 Neighboring gene IGF2 antisense RNA Neighboring gene insulin repeat instability region Neighboring gene microRNA 4686 Neighboring gene insulin Neighboring gene tyrosine hydroxylase

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?


EBI GWAS Catalog

A genome-wide association study identifies KIAA0350 as a type 1 diabetes gene.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genome-wide association analysis of autoantibody positivity in type 1 diabetes cases.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in african americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Robust associations of four new chromosome regions from genome-wide analyses of type 1 diabetes.
EBI GWAS Catalog

Pathways from PubChem


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information


Readthrough INS-IGF2

Included genes: IGF2, INS

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables hormone activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
Component Evidence Code Pubs
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info

General protein information

Preferred Names
insulin, isoform 2
INS-IGF2 readthrough transcript protein
insulin- insulin-like growth factor 2 read-through product

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

NEW Try the new Transcript table

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.


  1. NG_050578.1 RefSeqGene

    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001042376.3NP_001035835.1  insulin, isoform 2 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001035835.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Transcript Variant: This variant (2, also known as INSIGF short) represents the shorter transcript and is protein-coding.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC132217, BQ128162, DQ104204
    F8WCM5, Q1WM24
    ENSP00000380440.1, ENST00000397270.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    IlGF_insulin_like; IlGF_like family, insulin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of peptides including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, which play a variety of roles in controlling processes such as metabolism, growth and ...


  1. NR_003512.4 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Transcript Variant: This variant (1, also known as INSIGF long) lacks one exon and includes three additional 3' exons, compared to variant 2. The transcript is sufficiently abundant to represent as a RefSeq record; however, the predicted protein is not represented because the transcript is a candidate for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC132217, DQ104205

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    2129117..2161209 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0


  1. NC_060935.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    2216758..2248857 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)