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TNF tumor necrosis factor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7124, updated on 25-Oct-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
TNFprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
tumor necrosis factorprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:11892
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000232810 MIM:191160
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
DIF; TNFA; TNFSF2; TNLG1F; TNF-alpha
Summary
This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis ankylosing spondylitis, tuberculosis, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and cancer. Mutations in this gene affect susceptibility to cerebral malaria, septic shock, and Alzheimer disease. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2020]
Annotation information
Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is involved in cytokine storm inflammatory response.
Expression
Biased expression in bone marrow (RPKM 14.7), lymph node (RPKM 3.9) and 9 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TNF in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p21.33
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200815 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 6 NC_000006.12 (31575565..31578336)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (31543344..31546113)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene NFKB inhibitor like 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC100287329 Neighboring gene lymphotoxin alpha Neighboring gene lymphotoxin beta Neighboring gene leukocyte specific transcript 1 Neighboring gene natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 3

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Asthma, susceptibility to
MedGen: C1869116 OMIM: 600807 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs
Genome-wide association study of atypical psychosis.
GeneReviews: Not available
Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility loci.
GeneReviews: Not available
Genomewide association study of an AIDS-nonprogression cohort emphasizes the role played by HLA genes (ANRS Genomewide Association Study 02).
GeneReviews: Not available
Identification of candidate loci at 6p21 and 21q22 in a genome-wide association study of cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus.
GeneReviews: Not available
Migraine
MedGen: C3887485 OMIM: 157300 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs
Susceptibility to malaria
MedGen: C1970028 OMIM: 611162 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 replication is enhanced by TLR2 stimulation or TNF treatment in Langerhans cells PubMed
Clinical samples of cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients infected with HIV-1 subtypes B and C exhibited upregulated levels of TNF and IFNG PubMed
HIV-1 infected clinical samples have plasma extracellular vesicles that contain elevated ADAM10, ADAM17, and TNF when compared to healthy donors PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Asp asp ASP-YL9 peptide (89YLYNSLLQL97) induces release of IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or MIP-1beta in antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells PubMed
asp The expression of ASP is upregulated by TNF-alpha in Molt-4 cells in a dose-dependent manner PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 IIIB Env (gp120) upregulates production of TNF (TNF-a), IL-17A, CCL2 (MCP1), CCL5 (RANTES), IL6, IL10, CXCL8 (IL8), CXCL1 (GRO-a), and CCL1 (I309) in stimulated monocyte derived macrophages PubMed
env HIV-1 JRFL Env (gp120) upregulates TNFa in ARPE-19 cells PubMed
env Curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, inhibits HIV-1 gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6, and the chemokines IL-8, RANTES, and IP-10 in primary human genital epithelial cells PubMed
env Cytokines induced in vitro by HIV-1 gp120 in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) include interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-10, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates human cells to release TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, and this effect can be blocked with soluble CD4 PubMed
env Co-treatment with HIV-1 gp120, TNF-alpha, and ZVAD induces necroptosis in HT-29 cells PubMed
env B cells from peripheral blood and lymph nodes of HIV-infected individuals secrete significant levels of TNF-alpha in the presence of HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-treated vaginal epithelial cells show upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, TNF-alpha) expression as compared to untreated control PubMed
env The binding of soluble HIV-1 gp120 to TLR2 or TLR4 results in upregulation of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 production through NF-kappaB activation PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 enhances TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 gene expression in coronary macrovascular endothelial cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits CpG-A-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10 proteins in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs PubMed
env NK cells that respond with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokine production to HIV-1 gp120 peptides have reduced CD16 and NKp46 expression and have increased levels of CD57 PubMed
env Frequent IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha NK cell responses to HIV-1 gp120 are dominant during chronic HIV-1 infection PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 induces human glial cells to release more TNF-alpha and IL-1beta than untreated cells PubMed
env Inhibition of NRF2 by siRNA results in increased NOX2, NFkappaB (p65/p50), TNF-alpha, and MMP-9 proteins in astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates the release of TNF-alpha from TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells; treatment with TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody and anti-TNF-alpha receptor type II (TNFR-II) antibody, inhibits gp120-induced upregulation of mu opioid receptor PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits TLR9-mediated upregulation of CD83 and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6, and chemokine IP10 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 triggers apoptosis in primary osteoblasts and osteoblast-derived cell lines (HOBIT) through TNFalpha activation PubMed
env HIV gp120 and TNF-alpha synergistically reduce endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and cause endothelial dysfunction via ICAM-1 PubMed
env Stimulation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with HIV-1 gp120 results in the CCR5-mediated activation of Lyn and the concomitant Lyn-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK-1/2, which leads to production of TNF-alpha PubMed
env Genistein, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppresses HIV-1 gp120-induced TNF-alpha secretion by primary macrophage PubMed
env In CD4-positive Jurkat cells, HIV-1 gp120 enhances TNF-induced NF-kappa B activation PubMed
env Treatment of HIV-1-infected monocytes with TNF-alpha increases the sensitivity of the interaction of the HIV-1 antigen gp120 with cytotoxic sera from HIV-1 infected individuals PubMed
env Enhanced TNF-alpha responses are observed when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are costimulated with HIV-1 gp120 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) PubMed
env CD4 downregulation by the treatment of macrophages with HIV-1 gp120 is mediated through the induction of endogenous TNF-alpha PubMed
env Apoptosis of CD8+ cells is mediated by the interaction between TNF-alpha bound to the membrane of macrophages (mbTNF) and a receptor on CD8+ T cells (TNF-receptor II, or TNFRII), which is upregulated by treatment with recombinant HIV-1 gp120 or SDF-1 PubMed
env Pretreatment of HIV-1 infected cells with TNF alpha augments syncytia formation mediated by the interaction of HIV-1 gp120 with cell surface CD4 molecules PubMed
env Exposure of macrophages to purified CCR5- or CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces secretion of high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, RANTES, and tumor necrosis factor alpha PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 partially inhibits the negative beta-adrenergic modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in microglial cells PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160 inhibits lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-mediated TNF secretion from RAW cells PubMed
env Pretreatment of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion PubMed
env Pretreatment of cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of p59(fyn), PLC-gamma1, ras activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in anti-CD3 mAb activated CD4+ T cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp160-induced apoptosis is affected in part by the release of TNF-alpha and is associated with attenuated Bcl-2 mRNA expression PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Exposure of TZM-bl-2 cells to HIV gp41 increases TNF (TNF-alpha) mRNA PubMed
env The HIV-1 gp41 transmembrane domain inhibits TLR2-induced activation of ERK1/2, and secretion of TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and IL-6 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp41 stimulates microglial cell production of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6) and chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1alpha) PubMed
env HIV-1 gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides induce the production of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); in contrast, gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides are able to depress the production of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 infected clinical samples have plasma extracellular vesicles that contain ADAM10, ADAM17, and TNF when compared to healthy donors PubMed
nef HIV-1 and SIVcpz Nef proteins enhance TNF-alpha, IKK-beta, and RelA/p65-induced NF-kappaB activation in 293T cells PubMed
nef The activating effect of exogenous HIV-1 Nef on PBMC proliferation and on monocyte-derived macrophages is associated with an upregulation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 production PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef expression by immature human and macaque dendritic cells (DCs) upregulates IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha, CXCL8, CCL3, and CCL4 release, but without upregulating co-stimulatory and other molecules characteristic of mature DCs PubMed
nef Primary quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes release both TNF-alpha and IL-2 in response to the treatment with exosomes from cells infected by HIV-1, but not by delta-Nef HIV-1 or Nef (62EEEE/AAAA65) HIV-1 strains PubMed
nef The proportion of HIV-1 Nef-specific CD8+ T cells endowed with TNF-alpha+, IFN-gamma+, CD107A+, and MIP-1beta+ is significantly higher in patients with the lowest virus set point than those with the highest virus set point PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits TNF-alpha release and enhances the expression of MKP-1 in human macrophages. TNF-alpha release is also inhibited in macrophages from HIV-infected patients PubMed
nef HIV-1 myristoylated Nef-induced TNF-alpha release leads to downregulation of CD36 expression by myristoylated Nef in monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef-mediated activation of TACE cleaves pro-TNF alpha in endosomal compartments PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits IFN-gamm-induced apoptosis and upregulates TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MIP-3alpha production by Caco-2 cells while downregulating IL-10 production PubMed
nef Both the myristoylation site and the acidic cluster in HIV-1 Nef are required for the activation of NF-kappaB, which induces upregulation of TNFalpha and IL6 expression PubMed
nef Stimulation of CD8+ T cells with HIV-1 Nef peptides upregulates perforin and TNF-alpha expression PubMed
nef Nef inhibits ASK1/p38MAPK-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production by inhibiting binding of ATF2 to the TNF-alpha promoter PubMed
nef Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production depends upon the Ets, Egr, Sp1, CRE or AP1 binding sites on the TNF-alpha promoter, whereas Nef-mediated promoter activation depends only on the CRE and AP1 binding sites PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef impairs the recruitment of TNF-alpha-positive compartments at the site of phagocytosis PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef significantly increases TNF-alpha release from Nef-treated homeostatic or inflamed mucosal cell lines. Nef abrogates the IFN-gamma-induced modulation of TNF-alpha secretion in these cells PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef and ALK show similar effects by increasing different cytokines/chemokines, such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and RANTES, that may be relevant for HAD pathogenesis PubMed
nef Expression of HIV-1 Nef in a CD4+ human T-cell hybridoma enhances the surface levels of the membrane-bound cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and LIGHT; the enhancement of TNF and LIGHT depends on the presence of a functional dileucine motif in Nef PubMed
nef Intracisternal HIV-1 Nef injection upregulates levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in rat cerebrospinal fluid PubMed
nef Nef-induced expression of TNF-alpha is observed in rat hippocampus grafted with Nef-transduced macrophages PubMed
nef HIV-1 nef gene expression in human glial cells inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation through the activation of MAPK and JNK PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef increases the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from primary human-monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected with HIV-1 PubMed
nef The presence of recombinant HIV-1 Nef and ethanol upregulates the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in primary human brain micro vascular endothelial cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag The proportion of HIV-1 Gag-specific CD8+ T cells endowed with TNF-alpha+, IFN-gamma+, CD107A+, and MIP-1beta+ is significantly higher in patients with the lowest virus set point than those with the highest virus set point PubMed
gag Stimulation of CD8+ T cells with HIV-1 Gag peptides upregulates perforin and TNF-alpha expression PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles expressed by recombinant baculoviruses activate human PBMC to release TNF-alpha in a dose and time dependent manner PubMed
gag Stimulation of HIV-1 infected human adipocytes by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta increases the levels of HIV-1 Gag production PubMed
gag The Matrix protein of HIV-1 Gag enhances the cytokine-induced production of TNF-alpha PubMed
Tat tat The gene expression of TNF is significantly upregulated in clade B Tat treated SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells, but downregulated in clade C Tat treated SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells PubMed
tat Human microglia cells treated with HIV-1 clade C Tat show more significant upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and higher NF-kappaB activation as compared to clade B Tat-treated cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the production of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-alpha1, and IFN-gamma, in human monocyte derived-dendritic cells and in primary human Muller glia PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibitor didehydro-Cortistatin A (dCA), an analog of a natural steroidal alkaloid, potently inhibits Tat-mediated modulation of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 PubMed
tat Upregulation of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat is implicated in the toxic effects of Tat, including neuronal death and astroglial dysfunction PubMed
tat Upregulation of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat leads to activation of NF-kappa B, leading to NF-kappa B induced activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced release of TNF-alpha and IL-10 is TLR4-dependent in monocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of PD-L1 on monocyte-derived dendritic cells involves a TNF-alpha-mediated mechanism through the TLR4 pathway PubMed
tat Co-treatment with HIV-1 Tat, TNF-alpha, and ZVAD induces necroptosis in HT-29 cells PubMed
tat Sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) significantly reverses HIV-1 Tat-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in THP-1 cells PubMed
tat Exogenous Nef and TNF-alpha synergistically activate NF-kappaB and AP-1 resulting in enhancing HIV-1 Tat transactivation of the LTR and viral replication in both chronically infected promonocytic cells and acutely infected primary macrophages PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat significantly decreases TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion but increases IL-4 levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits CpG-A-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10 proteins in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat- and oxovanadate-treated microglial cells synergistically induce release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta proteins, which involves CD45 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways PubMed
tat LRRK2 is involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced cytokine TNF-alpha, IL-6, and MCP-1 expression in microglia cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated stimulation of TNF-alpha production through the activation of PKC beta(II) and delta isoforms requires p38 MAP kinase, ERK1/2 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB transcription factor in human macrophages PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat from subtype E virus isolates inhibits TNF gene transcription and protein production in CD4(+) Jurkat T cells, and this repression is associated with the tryptophan at residue 32 of Tat PubMed
tat Over-expression of PPARalpha or PPARgamma attenuates Tat-induced up-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CCL2, and E-selectin PubMed
tat Wild-type Tat but not Cys-22 and oxidized Tat induces CD1A-expressing monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) maturation and increases the production of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-12, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta PubMed
tat Monocytes treated with HIV-1 clade B Tat show significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as compared to clade C Tat-treated cultures PubMed
tat Recombinant CD40L synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to increase TNF-alpha release from primary human monocytes and microglia in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. This synergism is attributed to a Tat-mediated up-regulation of CD40 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat increases CXCL10 expression in IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha stimulated human astrocytes via NADPH oxidase PubMed
tat Induction of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat requires activation of NF-kappa B and also involves protein kinase A, tyrosine kinase, phospholipase C, protein kinase C, MAPK, and release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-regulated stores PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat interacts with TNF-alpha to induce monocyte metalloproteinase-9 production PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat interacts with TNF-alpha to potentiate NF-kappa B activation by downregulation of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits TNF-alpha-induced repression of tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 and amplifies TNF-alpha activity in stably tat-transfected HeLa cells PubMed
tat IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma synergize with HIV-1 Tat to promote in nude mice the development of angioproliferative Kaposi's sarcoma-like lesions PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat and TNF-alpha interact additively in upregulating IL-8 production PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat synergizes with TNF-alpha to induce the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat synergizes with TNF-alpha to enhance IL-6 secretion and activate human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, an effect mediated in U937 cells through the inhibition of CD26 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced calcium mobilization and TNF-alpha production in primary human monocytes are entirely regulated by DHP receptors PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat and TNF-alpha synergistically activate the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells PubMed
tat Treatment of T lymphocytes with IL-2, IL-6 and TNFalpha increases CDK9 and cyclin T1 protein levels, suggesting a mechanism for activation of HIV-1 Tat function and reactivation of HIV-1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes harboring a latent provirus PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat cooperates with Puralpha, cyclin T1, and CDK9 to activate the TNFalpha promoter and upregulate TNFalpha expression PubMed
Vpr vpr Vpr enhances TNF secretion from HIV infected MT4C5 & CD4+ T cells and is dependent on Vpr neosynthesis; i.e. results suggest that virion-incorporated Vpr is not sufficient to promote TNF secretion (in MT4C5 cells) PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances HIV-1 replication in U1 cells by the induction of TNFalpha PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr expression results in increased IkappaB-alpha levels in the presence of TNF-alpha treatment in differentiated U937 cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the NFkappaB signaling pathway in TNF-alpha treated cells and abolishes the phosphorylation of NFkappaB p65 subunit in response to such treatment PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances TNF-alpha production in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DC). Vpr-induced TNF-alpha production in DC is through STAT1 activation PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits TNFalpha induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr modulates expression of TNFalpha, increasing or suppressing TNFalpha expression through varying effects on NF-kappa B activity in different cell lines PubMed
Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu interferes with beta-TrCP to inhibit TNF-alpha-induced activation of NFkappaB PubMed
capsid gag Herpes simplex virus type 2-Infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) produce TNF-alpha, which binds to its receptor TNF-R1 and upregulates the expression of CCR5 on cell surface, leading to enhance HIV-1 p24 release from MDDCs PubMed
gag PLA-p24-loaded human monocyte-derived dendritic cells enhance the secretion of MIP-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha in comparison with PLA-loaded cells alone PubMed
gag The increase of p24 in HIV-1 production from P. falciparum-infected red blood cells cocultured with CD4+ T cells is TNF-alpha dependent PubMed
gag Unactivated memory CD4+ T cells infected by HIV-1 in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15 alone or IL-6/IL-7/TNF-alpha combination, upregulate granzyme B and HIV-1 CA production PubMed
matrix gag Exposure of TZM-bl-2 cells to HIV MA (p17) increases TNF (TNF-alpha) mRNA PubMed
gag HIV-1 matrix protein colocalizes with syndecan-2, syndecan-4, and CD44v3 on activated CD4+ T cells to modulate TNF-alpha and IL2 production PubMed
gag HIV-1 Matrix slightly enhances TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secretion induced by IL-15 monocyte stimulation and counteracts IL-4 mediated inhibition in the production of these cytokines PubMed
gag HIV-1 Matrix enhances the cytokine-induced production of TNF-alpha PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cytokine activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protease binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
JNK cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
MAPK cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
activation of MAPK activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
activation of MAPKKK activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
astrocyte activation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to amino acid stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to nicotine IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to organic cyclic compound IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cognition TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cortical actin cytoskeleton organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
death-inducing signaling complex assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
defense response to Gram-positive bacterium IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
embryonic digestive tract development IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
endothelial cell apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular matrix organization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
fractalkine production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
glucose metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
humoral immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
leukocyte tethering or rolling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
microglial cell activation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
microglial cell activation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
necroptotic signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of branching involved in lung morphogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cellular biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of fat cell differentiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of glucose import IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of interleukin-6 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid storage NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of myoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of myosin-light-chain-phosphatase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of neurogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein complex disassembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vascular wound healing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of viral genome replication IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
osteoclast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of I-kappaB phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of JUN kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of amyloid-beta formation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of blood microparticle formation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell adhesion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ceramide biosynthetic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chemokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fever generation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of glial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of glial cell proliferation IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of hair follicle development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of inflammatory response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interferon-gamma production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial endothelial cell IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of phagocytosis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of podosome assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of programmed cell death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein complex assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein complex disassembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein localization to cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of superoxide dismutase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of synaptic transmission ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of synoviocyte proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of translational initiation by iron IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase B signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein localization to plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
receptor biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of fat cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of immunoglobulin secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of insulin secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of synapse organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
response to glucocorticoid IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to salt stress TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to virus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
sequestering of triglyceride IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vascular endothelial growth factor production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell surface IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
external side of plasma membrane ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane raft IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phagocytic cup ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
recycling endosome ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
tumor necrosis factor
Names
APC1 protein
TNF, macrophage-derived
TNF, monocyte-derived
TNF-a
tumor necrosis factor ligand 1F
tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2
tumor necrosis factor-alpha

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007462.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4993..7764
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000594.4NP_000585.2  tumor necrosis factor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000585.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL662801, BC028148, BP215875, CA306559
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4702.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01375
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5STB3
    Related
    ENSP00000398698.2, ENST00000449264.3
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00229
    Location:103233
    TNF; TNF(tumor Necrosis Factor) family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20200815

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    31575565..31578336
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

Genomic

  1. NT_167244.2 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

    Range
    2909108..2910915
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_2

Genomic

  1. NT_113891.3 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_2

    Range
    3052852..3055623
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_3

Genomic

  1. NT_167245.2 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_3

    Range
    2823298..2826069
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_4

Genomic

  1. NT_167246.2 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_4

    Range
    2880606..2883377
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_5

Genomic

  1. NT_167247.2 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_5

    Range
    2917463..2920234
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_6

Genomic

  1. NT_167248.2 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_6

    Range
    2831384..2834157
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_7

Genomic

  1. NT_167249.2 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_7

    Range
    2874845..2877616
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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