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GADD45A growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1647, updated on 21-Dec-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
GADD45Aprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alphaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4095
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000116717 MIM:126335
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
DDIT1; GADD45
Summary
This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The DNA damage-induced transcription of this gene is mediated by both p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
Expression
Broad expression in liver (RPKM 72.1), kidney (RPKM 57.9) and 23 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GADD45A in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1p31.3
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (67685201..67688334)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (68150860..68154021)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C pseudogene 9 Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 392, pseudogene Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr1.6815 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105378781 Neighboring gene G protein subunit gamma 12 Neighboring gene RNA, U7 small nuclear 80 pseudogene Neighboring gene GNG12, DIRAS3 and WLS antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene sirtuin 5 pseudogene

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates GADD45alpha protein levels in primary CD4+ lymphocytes and SupT1 cells; knockdown of GADD45alpha by GADD45alpha siRNA relieves Vpr-induced apoptosis PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein N-terminus binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
DNA repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
activation of MAPKKK activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
activation of MAPKKK activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell cycle arrest TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to ionizing radiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
centrosome cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitotic cell cycle arrest IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of JNK cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell cycle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction in response to DNA damage IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear speck IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha
Names
DDIT-1
DNA damage-inducible transcript 1 protein
DNA damage-inducible transcript-1
growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001199741.2NP_001186670.1  growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001186670.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an in-frame exon in the CDS and encodes a shorter isoform (2), as compared to variant 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK314991, BU629410, DQ008445
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55605.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P24522
    Related
    ENSP00000360024.3, ENST00000370985.4
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01248
    Location:1889
    Ribosomal_L7Ae; Ribosomal protein L7Ae/L30e/S12e/Gadd45 family
  2. NM_001199742.2NP_001186671.1  growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001186671.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks a coding exon, as compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, as compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK314991, BU629410, EF581092
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS72806.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P24522
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A5JUZ3
    Related
    ENSP00000496875.1, ENST00000650283.1
  3. NM_001924.4NP_001915.1  growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001915.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK314991, M60974
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS640.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P24522
    Related
    ENSP00000360025.4, ENST00000370986.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01248
    Location:21123
    Ribosomal_L7Ae; Ribosomal protein L7Ae/L30e/S12e/Gadd45 family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    67685201..67688334
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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