U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

DDIT3 DNA damage inducible transcript 3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1649, updated on 27-May-2024

Summary

Official Symbol
DDIT3provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
DNA damage inducible transcript 3provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:2726
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000175197 MIM:126337; AllianceGenome:HGNC:2726
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
CHOP; CEBPZ; CHOP10; CHOP-10; GADD153; AltDDIT3; C/EBPzeta
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors. The protein functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor by forming heterodimers with other C/EBP members, such as C/EBP and LAP (liver activator protein), and preventing their DNA binding activity. The protein is implicated in adipogenesis and erythropoiesis, is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress, and promotes apoptosis. Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in myxoid liposarcomas or Ewing sarcoma. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two isoforms with different length have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
Annotation information
Note: CEBPZ (Gene ID: 10153) and DDIT3 (Gene ID: 1649) share the CEBPZ symbol/alias. CEBPZ is a widely used alternative name for DNA damage inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), which can be confused with the official symbol for CEBPZ (CCAAT enhancer binding protein zeta, GeneID: 10153). [12 Nov 2020]
Expression
Broad expression in thyroid (RPKM 74.2), bone marrow (RPKM 47.3) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs
NEW
Try the new Gene table
Try the new Transcript table

Genomic context

See DDIT3 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
12q13.3
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 12 NC_000012.12 (57516588..57520517, complement)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 12 NC_060936.1 (57484816..57488745, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (57910371..57914300, complement)

Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene methionyl-tRNA synthetase 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124903093 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC128125814 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr12:57913133-57914094 Neighboring gene microRNA 6758 Neighboring gene BRD4-independent group 4 enhancer GRCh37_chr12:57914069-57915268 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr12:57916016-57916975 Neighboring gene microRNA 616 Neighboring gene methyl-CpG binding domain protein 6 Neighboring gene dynactin subunit 2 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 6548 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 4584 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr12:57944162-57944754 Neighboring gene kinesin family member 5A Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr12:57955995-57956161 Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr12:57956855-57957072

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 Env gp120 upregulates DDIT3 (CHOP) in SVGA cells and human fetal astrocytes via IRE1a, JNK, and AP-1 PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response proteins CASP12 (Caspase 12), DDIT3 (CHOP), ROS1, ERN-1 (p-IRE1), EIF2AK3 (p-PERK), and ATF6 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat is dependent on DDIT3 (CHOP) to induce apoptosis in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HBMECs) as shown through DDIT3 siRNA knockdown PubMed
tat Expression of Rad51 enhances basal- and HIV-1 Tat-induced transcription of the HIV-1 LTR promoter; this event requires cooperativity from the C/EBP family of transcription factors including C/EBPbeta and C/EBPbeta homologous protein (CHOP) PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Clone Names

  • MGC4154

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
enables RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA polymerase II-specific DNA-binding transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables cAMP response element binding protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables cAMP response element binding protein binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables leucine zipper domain binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein heterodimerization activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables protein heterodimerization activity IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables transcription cis-regulatory region binding IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
enables transcription cis-regulatory region binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables transcription cis-regulatory region binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables transcription corepressor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables transcription corepressor activity IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables transcription factor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables transcription regulator activator activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables transcription regulator inhibitor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in ATF6-mediated unfolded protein response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in DNA damage response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in ER overload response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in PERK-mediated unfolded protein response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in Wnt signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in anterior/posterior axis specification ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
involved_in artery development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in blood vessel maturation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within cell redox homeostasis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in establishment of protein localization to mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in integrated stress response signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in integrated stress response signaling NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to nitrosative stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of DNA-templated transcription IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of determination of dorsal identity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of fat cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
acts_upstream_of negative regulation of interleukin-17 production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of negative regulation of interleukin-4 production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of myoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
acts_upstream_of negative regulation of type II interferon production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of DNA-templated transcription IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of autophagy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of cell cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to platelet-derived growth factor IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to starvation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to unfolded protein IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to wounding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in sensory perception of sound IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in vascular associated smooth muscle cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
part_of CHOP-ATF3 complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
part_of CHOP-ATF3 complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
part_of CHOP-ATF4 complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
part_of CHOP-ATF4 complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
part_of CHOP-ATF4 complex IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
part_of CHOP-C/EBP complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
part_of CHOP-C/EBP complex IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
part_of CHOP-C/EBP complex ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
part_of CHOP-C/EBP complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
part_of RNA polymerase II transcription regulator complex IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
part_of chromatin ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
is_active_in cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
located_in cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
located_in late endosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in nucleus NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
part_of protein-DNA complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
part_of transcription regulator complex NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein
Names
C/EBP zeta
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein
alternative DDIT3 protein
c/EBP-homologous protein 10
growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD153

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

NEW Try the new Transcript table

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_027674.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5004..8925
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001195053.1NP_001181982.1  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001181982.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AY461580, BM464290
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55838.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P35638
    Related
    ENSP00000448665.1, ENST00000551116.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00338
    Location:119182
    BRLZ; basic region leucin zipper
    cd14686
    Location:122176
    bZIP; coiled coil [structural motif]
  2. NM_001195054.1NP_001181983.1  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001181983.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an internal segment in the 5' UTR, as compared to variant 1. Variants 1-4 encode the same isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AY461580, BM464290, BU664077
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55838.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P35638
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00338
    Location:119182
    BRLZ; basic region leucin zipper
    cd14686
    Location:122176
    bZIP; coiled coil [structural motif]
  3. NM_001195055.1NP_001181984.1  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001181984.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an internal segment in the 5' UTR, as compared to variant 1. Variants 1-4 encode the same isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA054097, AY461580, BM464290
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55838.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P35638
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00338
    Location:119182
    BRLZ; basic region leucin zipper
    cd14686
    Location:122176
    bZIP; coiled coil [structural motif]
  4. NM_001195056.1NP_001181985.1  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001181985.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) has an additional segment in the 5' UTR, as compared to variant 1. Variants 1-4 encode the same isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK316581, AY461580, BM464290
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55838.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q53YD1
    Related
    ENSP00000447803.1, ENST00000552740.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00338
    Location:119182
    BRLZ; basic region leucin zipper
    cd14686
    Location:122176
    bZIP; coiled coil [structural motif]
  5. NM_001195057.1NP_001181986.1  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001181986.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks an internal segment in the 5' region, resulting in a downstream AUG start codon, as compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus, as compared to isoform 1. Variants 5-8 all encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AY461580, BM464290, CN482428
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8943.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    F8VS99, P35638
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q53YD1
    Related
    ENSP00000447188.1, ENST00000547303.5
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00338
    Location:96159
    BRLZ; basic region leucin zipper
    cd14686
    Location:102153
    bZIP; coiled coil [structural motif]
    pfam02724
    Location:17125
    CDC45; CDC45-like protein
  6. NM_001413641.1NP_001400570.1  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC022506
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    F8VS99, P35638
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q53YD1
  7. NM_001413642.1NP_001400571.1  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC022506
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    F8VS99, P35638
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q53YD1
  8. NM_004083.6NP_004074.2  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004074.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an internal segment in the 5' region, resulting in a downstream AUG start codon, as compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus, as compared to isoform 1. Variants 5-8 all encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC022506
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8943.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    F8VS99, P35638
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q53YD1
    Related
    ENSP00000340671.3, ENST00000346473.8
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00338
    Location:96159
    BRLZ; basic region leucin zipper
    cd14686
    Location:102153
    bZIP; coiled coil [structural motif]
    pfam02724
    Location:17125
    CDC45; CDC45-like protein

RNA

  1. NR_182182.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC022506

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    57516588..57520517 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060936.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    57484816..57488745 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)