U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
    • Showing Current items.

    DDX21 DExD-box helicase 21 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 9188, updated on 5-May-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    DDX21provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    DExD-box helicase 21provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:2744
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000165732 MIM:606357; AllianceGenome:HGNC:2744
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    RH; GUA; GURDB; II/Gu; RH II/Gu; RH-II/GU; gu-alpha; RH-II/GuA
    Summary
    DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is an antigen recognized by autoimmune antibodies from a patient with watermelon stomach disease. This protein unwinds double-stranded RNA, folds single-stranded RNA, and may play important roles in ribosomal RNA biogenesis, RNA editing, RNA transport, and general transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in bone marrow (RPKM 38.2), appendix (RPKM 33.3) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
    Try the new Gene table
    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See DDX21 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    10q22.1
    Exon count:
    16
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 10 NC_000010.11 (68956170..68985068)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 10 NC_060934.1 (69825602..69854499)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 10 NC_000010.10 (70715926..70744824)

    Chromosome 10 - NC_000010.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene storkhead box 1 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 697, pseudogene Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak1002 silencer Neighboring gene NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr10:70637959-70638530 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 3469 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 3470 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 3471 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 571, pseudogene Neighboring gene DExD-box helicase 50 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 3472 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr10:70715903-70716684 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr10:70716685-70717465 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 3474 Neighboring gene mediator complex subunit 28 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene kinesin family binding protein Neighboring gene ACTB pseudogene 14

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21 (DDX21), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
    Gag-Pol gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21 (DDX21), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
    Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21 (DDX21), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21 (DDX21), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
    Rev rev DDX5 interacts with DDX21 and synergistically enhances the Rev function PubMed
    rev DDX21 interacts with HIV-1 Rev and enhances the Rev function. DDX21 partially co-localizes with Rev in the perinucleolar region PubMed
    Tat tat Interaction of HIV-1 Tat with RHII/Gu in T-cells is identified by a proteomic strategy based on affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Clone Names

    • DKFZp686F21172

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables 7SK snRNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables ATP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables ATP hydrolysis activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables RNA binding HDA PubMed 
    enables RNA helicase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables RNA helicase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables RNA helicase activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables RNA polymerase inhibitor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables double-stranded RNA binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables identical protein binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables mRNA binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables miRNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables rRNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables snoRNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    part_of B-WICH complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in chromosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    located_in cytosol ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in membrane HDA PubMed 
    located_in mitochondrion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    is_active_in nucleolus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in nucleolus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in nucleolus NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    nucleolar RNA helicase 2
    Names
    DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21
    DEAD box protein 21
    DEAD-box helicase 21
    DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 21
    Gu protein
    RNA helicase II/Gu alpha
    nucleolar RNA helicase Gu
    nucleolar RNA helicase II
    NP_001243839.1
    NP_001397861.1
    NP_004719.2

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001256910.2NP_001243839.1  nucleolar RNA helicase 2 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243839.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5'UTR and has multiple coding region differences, compared to variant 1. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream AUG and result in an isoform (2) with a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA446317, AL359844
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS73144.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A8I5KND9
      Related
      ENSP00000480334.1, ENST00000620315.2
      Conserved Domains (5) summary
      PTZ00424
      Location:100486
      PTZ00424; helicase 45; Provisional
      cd00079
      Location:343470
      HELICc; Helicase superfamily c-terminal domain; associated with DEXDc-, DEAD-, and DEAH-box proteins, yeast initiation factor 4A, Ski2p, and Hepatitis C virus NS3 helicases; this domain is found in a wide variety of helicases and helicase related proteins; may ...
      cd00268
      Location:120327
      DEADc; DEAD-box helicases. A diverse family of proteins involved in ATP-dependent RNA unwinding, needed in a variety of cellular processes including splicing, ribosome biogenesis and RNA degradation. The name derives from the sequence of the Walker B motif ...
      cd12936
      Location:549641
      GUCT_RHII_Gualpha_beta; RNA-binding GUCT domain found in vertebrate RNA helicase II/Gualpha (RH-II/Gualpha), RNA helicase II/Gubeta (RH-II/Gubeta) and similar proteins
      cl17173
      Location:650703
      AdoMet_MTases; S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases (SAM or AdoMet-MTase), class I; AdoMet-MTases are enzymes that use S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet) as a substrate for methyltransfer, creating the product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). ...
    2. NM_001410932.1NP_001397861.1  nucleolar RNA helicase 2 isoform 3

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL359844
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS91249.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A8I5KYZ4
      Related
      ENSP00000510328.1, ENST00000685106.1
    3. NM_004728.4NP_004719.2  nucleolar RNA helicase 2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004719.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AA446317, AL359844, BC008071, DW408689
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS31211.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      B2RDL0, Q13436, Q5VX41, Q68D35, Q9NR30
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A8I5KNP3
      Related
      ENSP00000346120.4, ENST00000354185.9
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      COG0513
      Location:178587
      SrmB; Superfamily II DNA and RNA helicase [Replication, recombination and repair]
      cd12936
      Location:617709
      GUCT_RHII_Gualpha_beta; RNA-binding GUCT domain found in vertebrate RNA helicase II/Gualpha (RH-II/Gualpha), RNA helicase II/Gubeta (RH-II/Gubeta) and similar proteins
      cl17173
      Location:718771
      AdoMet_MTases; S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases (SAM or AdoMet-MTase), class I; AdoMet-MTases are enzymes that use S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet) as a substrate for methyltransfer, creating the product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000010.11 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      68956170..68985068
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060934.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      69825602..69854499
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)