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TLR4 toll like receptor 4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7099, updated on 14-Oct-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
TLR4provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
toll like receptor 4provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:11850
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000136869 MIM:603030; Vega:OTTHUMG00000021046
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TOLL; CD284; TLR-4; ARMD10
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor has been implicated in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in most gram-negative bacteria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with differences in LPS responsiveness. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Expression
Broad expression in spleen (RPKM 17.1), appendix (RPKM 15.6) and 22 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TLR4 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
9q33.1
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 9 NC_000009.12 (117704175..117717491)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (120466453..120479769)

Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928797 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L35a pseudogene 22 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 1082, pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376244 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376243 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376246

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Age-related macular degeneration 10
MedGen: C1969108 OMIM: 611488 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association study of plasma N6 polyunsaturated fatty acids within the cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology consortium.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Meta-analysis identifies loci affecting levels of the potential osteoarthritis biomarkers sCOMP and uCTX-II with genome wide significance.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 CN54, JRFL, and Ada Env (gp120) upregulates IL-6, CCL2, CCL4, CXCL8, and IL-1b through TLR4 and CCR5 induction in monocyte derived macrophages and hepatic stellate cells because treatment with an anti-TLR4 antibody mitigated the response PubMed
env The binding of soluble HIV-1 gp120 to TLR2 or TLR4 results in upregulation of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 production through NF-kappaB activation PubMed
env Human primary astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 gp120 has a significant increase in TLR4 protein expression PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat engages TLR4, which induces production of TNF and IL10 in human monocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates TLR4 by specific dynamin endocytosis as a result of Tat-TLR4 interaction PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat engages TLR4 resulting in RELA (NK-kappaB) activation and IL6 and CXCL8 (IL8) protein expression PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced release of TNF-alpha and IL-10 is TLR4-dependent in monocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated regulation of MSRV and Syncytin-1 involves TLR-4 in primary astrocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of CCR2, CD16, and TLR4 in monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat interacts physically with the TLR4-MD2 complex and the N-terminal region (residues 1-29) of Tat is involved in the interation with TLR4-MD2 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of PD-L1 on monocyte-derived dendritic cells involves a TNF-alpha-mediated mechanism through the TLR4 pathway PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat protein decreases TLR4 protein levels and suppresses C. parvum-induced TLR4 protein expression PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced IL-6 production depends on the activation of NFkappaB and the involvement of C/EBP-beta, TLR4, and MyD88 PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr potentiates the suppression of Toll-like receptor 4 by glucocorticoids via the glucocorticoid receptor pathway PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Activated TLR4 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activated TLR4 signalling, organism-specific biosystemTLR4 is unique among the TLR family in its ability to recruit four adapters to activate two distinct signaling pathways. One pathway is activated by the pair of the adapters Mal or TIRAP (Toll/inter...
  • Activation of IRF3/IRF7 mediated by TBK1/IKK epsilon, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of IRF3/IRF7 mediated by TBK1/IKK epsilon, organism-specific biosystemCell stimulation with viral ds RNA leads to the activation of two IKK-related serine/threonine kinases, TBK1 and IKK-i which directly phosphorylate IRF3 and IRF7 promoting their dimerization and tran...
  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
  • Amoebiasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amoebiasis, conserved biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
  • Antigen processing-Cross presentation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Antigen processing-Cross presentation, organism-specific biosystemMHC class I molecules generally present peptide antigens derived from proteins synthesized by the cell itself to CD8+ T cells. However, in some circumstances, antigens from extracellular environment ...
  • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and ...
  • Caspase activation via extrinsic apoptotic signalling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Caspase activation via extrinsic apoptotic signalling pathway, organism-specific biosystemKnown as the "death receptor pathway" the extrinsic or caspase 8/10 dependent pathway is activated by ligand binding. The "death receptors" are specialized cell-surface receptors including Fas/CD95, ...
  • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
  • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
  • Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation, organism-specific biosystemMajor histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular b...
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCorticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide secreted abundantly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in the central nervous system ...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Diseases associated with the TLR signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases associated with the TLR signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll like receptors (TLRs) are sensors of the innate immune system that detect danger signals derived from pathogens (pathogen-associated molecular patterns - PAMP) or damaged cells (damage-associate...
  • Diseases of Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases of Immune System, organism-specific biosystemThe immune system is a complex network of the biological processes that provide defense mechanisms during infection or in response to an intrinsic danger signal. Compromised immune response may prese...
  • ER-Phagosome pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ER-Phagosome pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe other TAP-dependent cross-presentation mechanism in phagocytes is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-phagosome model. Desjardins proposed that ER is recruited to the cell surface, where it fuses wit...
  • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • IKK complex recruitment mediated by RIP1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IKK complex recruitment mediated by RIP1, organism-specific biosystemReceptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) mediates the activation of proinflammatory cytokines via intermediate induction of IKK complex in NFkB pathways [Ea et al. 2006]. Poly(I-C) treatment stimulated ...
  • IRAK2 mediated activation of TAK1 complex upon TLR7/8 or 9 stimulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRAK2 mediated activation of TAK1 complex upon TLR7/8 or 9 stimulation, organism-specific biosystemAlthough IRAK-1 was originally thought to be a key mediator of TRAF6 activation in the IL1R/TLR signaling (Dong W et al. 2006), recent studies showed that IRAK-2, but not IRAK-1, led to TRAF6 polyubi...
  • IRAK4 deficiency (TLR2/4), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRAK4 deficiency (TLR2/4), organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is a serine/threonine kinase, that mediates activation of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and AP1 downstream of IL-1 receptors and all toll lik...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
  • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
  • Legionellosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Legionellosis, conserved biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
  • Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
  • Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
  • Ligand-dependent caspase activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ligand-dependent caspase activation, organism-specific biosystemCaspase-8 is synthesized as zymogen (procaspase-8) and is formed from procaspase-8 as a cleavage product. However, the cleavage itself appears not to be sufficient for the formation of an active casp...
  • Malaria, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, organism-specific biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • Malaria, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, conserved biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • MyD88 deficiency (TLR2/4), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88 deficiency (TLR2/4), organism-specific biosystemMyeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that mediates intracellular signaling pathways evoked by all Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except for TLR3 and by several interleuk...
  • MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystemUpon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I ...
  • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystemMyD88-independent signaling pathway is shared by TLR3 and TLR4 cascades. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF or TICAM1) is a key adapter molecule in transducing signals from ...
  • MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also b...
  • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
  • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
  • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
  • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemSources: [http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa05130.html KEGG]
  • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
  • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
  • Phagosome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phagosome, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is...
  • Phagosome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phagosome, conserved biosystemPhagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is...
  • Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis FSGS, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis FSGS, organism-specific biosystemPrimary or idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as an important cause of end stage renal disease in adults. FSGS is ...
  • Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystemCell death is a fundamental cellular response that has a crucial role in shaping our bodies during development and in regulating tissue homeostasis by eliminating unwanted cells. There are a number o...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Regulation of TLR by endogenous ligand, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of TLR by endogenous ligand, organism-specific biosystemDiverse molecules of host-cell origin may serve as endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (Erridge C 2010; Piccinini AM & Midwood KS 2010). These molecules are known as damage-associated mo...
  • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
  • Salmonella infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salmonella infection, conserved biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
  • Simplified Depiction of MYD88 Distinct Input-Output Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Simplified Depiction of MYD88 Distinct Input-Output Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on figure 7 from Li et al. Formation of MyD88 dimer catalyzes formation of IRAK1/TRAF6 complex. UEV1A and Ubc13 ubiquinate TRAF6 which allow for the activation of NFKB and AP-1 ...
  • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...
  • TLR4 Signaling and Tolerance, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TLR4 Signaling and Tolerance, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on the figure 2 of "Toll-like Receptors: Novel Pharmacological Targets for the Treatment of Neurological Diseases" and figure 2 of "Toll-like receptor and its roles in myocardia...
  • TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.
  • TRAF6 mediated induction of TAK1 complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRAF6 mediated induction of TAK1 complex, organism-specific biosystemIn human, together with ubiquitin-conjugating E2-type enzymes UBC13 and UEV1A (also known as UBE2V1), TRAF6 catalyses Lys63-linked ubiquitination. It is believed that auto polyubiquitination and oli...
  • TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemTRIF(TICAM1) was shown to induce IRF3/7 and NF-?B activation and apoptosis through distinct intracellular signaling pathways [Han KJ et al 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK et al 2005]. TRIF consists...
  • TRIF-mediated programmed cell death, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRIF-mediated programmed cell death, organism-specific biosystemTLR3 and -4 trigger TRIF-dependent programmed cell death in various human and mouse cells (Kalai M et al. 2002; Han KJ et al. 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK 2005; Estornes Y et al. 2012; He S et al...
  • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at le...
  • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as was shown for mammals is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating the antiviral and in...
  • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria,...
  • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemRNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich...
  • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated....
  • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial...
  • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recog...
  • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
  • Toll-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Toll-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on the figure 1 of "Genetic variation in TLR or NFkappaB pathways and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study" (see bibliography). TLR and NFkB are important in inflamma...
  • Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • Toll-like receptor signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide receptor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transmembrane signaling receptor activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
B cell proliferation involved in immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
I-kappaB phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
T-helper 1 type immune response NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
activation of MAPK activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
apoptotic signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
astrocyte development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to amyloid-beta IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to interferon-gamma IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cellular response to lipoteichoic acid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to oxidised low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
defense response to Gram-negative bacterium IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
defense response to Gram-negative bacterium IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
defense response to bacterium TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
detection of fungus NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
detection of lipopolysaccharide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
inflammatory response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
interferon-gamma production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
interleukin-1 beta secretion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
intestinal epithelial structure maintenance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
NOT lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
macrophage activation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
necroptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of interferon-gamma production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of interleukin-17 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of interleukin-23 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of interleukin-6 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
nitric oxide production involved in inflammatory response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of B cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of JNK cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome complex assembly ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cellular response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chemokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of gene expression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of inflammatory response IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interferon-alpha production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interferon-beta biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interferon-beta production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interferon-gamma production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-1 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-10 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-12 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of macrophage activation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of macrophage cytokine production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of oxidative stress-induced neuron death ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of platelet activation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of dendritic cell cytokine production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lipopolysaccharide IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
response to lipopolysaccharide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
toll-like receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
early endosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endosome membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
external side of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
intracellular IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
intrinsic component of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide receptor complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
receptor complex IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
toll-like receptor 4
Names
hToll
homolog of Drosophila toll

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_011475.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..18309
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_003266.3NP_003257.1  toll-like receptor 4 isoform C

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003257.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains an additional internal exon compared to transcript variant 1. This variant represents translation initiation at a downstream AUG compared to variant 1; the 5'-most initiation codon, as used in variant 1, is associated with a weak Kozak sequence and a truncated ORF that would render the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Leaky scanning may allow translation initiation at the downstream AUG, which results in an isoform (C) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform A.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK226155, BC025294, BC143841, BG622357, DA187988, DA218006
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O00206
    Related
    ENSP00000377997.4, OTTHUMP00000022808, ENST00000394487.5, OTTHUMT00000055550
    Conserved Domains (6) summary
    smart00082
    Location:539585
    LRRCT; Leucine rich repeat C-terminal domain
    smart00255
    Location:634775
    TIR; Toll - interleukin 1 - resistance
    cd00116
    Location:112416
    LRR_RI; Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), ribonuclease inhibitor (RI)-like subfamily. LRRs are 20-29 residue sequence motifs present in many proteins that participate in protein-protein interactions and have different functions and cellular locations. LRRs correspond ...
    sd00031
    Location:1639
    LRR_1; leucine-rich repeat [structural motif]
    sd00033
    Location:335360
    LRR_RI; leucine-rich repeat [structural motif]
    pfam13855
    Location:1774
    LRR_8; Leucine rich repeat
  2. NM_138554.4NP_612564.1  toll-like receptor 4 isoform A precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_612564.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (A).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK226155, BC117422, BG622357, DA187988, DA218006
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6818.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O00206
    Related
    ENSP00000363089.5, OTTHUMP00000022807, ENST00000355622.7, OTTHUMT00000055549
    Conserved Domains (6) summary
    smart00082
    Location:579625
    LRRCT; Leucine rich repeat C-terminal domain
    smart00255
    Location:674815
    TIR; Toll - interleukin 1 - resistance
    cd00116
    Location:152456
    LRR_RI; Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), ribonuclease inhibitor (RI)-like subfamily. LRRs are 20-29 residue sequence motifs present in many proteins that participate in protein-protein interactions and have different functions and cellular locations. LRRs correspond ...
    sd00031
    Location:5679
    LRR_1; leucine-rich repeat [structural motif]
    sd00033
    Location:353374
    LRR_RI; leucine-rich repeat [structural motif]
    pfam13855
    Location:57114
    LRR_8; Leucine rich repeat
  3. NM_138557.2NP_612567.1  toll-like receptor 4 isoform D

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_612567.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an internal exon compared to transcript variant 1. This variant represents translation initiation at a downstream AUG compared to variant 1; the 5'-most initiation codon, as used in variant 1, is associated with a weak Kozak sequence and a truncated ORF that would render the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Leaky scanning may allow translation initiation at the downstream AUG, which results in an isoform (D) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform A.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK226155, BC025294, BG622357, DA187988, DA218006
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O00206
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    smart00082
    Location:379425
    LRRCT; Leucine rich repeat C-terminal domain
    smart00255
    Location:474615
    TIR; Toll - interleukin 1 - resistance
    cd00116
    Location:27256
    LRR_RI; Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), ribonuclease inhibitor (RI)-like subfamily. LRRs are 20-29 residue sequence motifs present in many proteins that participate in protein-protein interactions and have different functions and cellular locations. LRRs correspond ...
    sd00033
    Location:175200
    LRR_RI; leucine-rich repeat [structural motif]
    pfam13855
    Location:247308
    LRR_8; Leucine rich repeat

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000009.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    117704175..117717491
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_138556.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_138556.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein is not supported by current protein homology data.
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