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RAC1 Rac family small GTPase 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5879, updated on 22-Sep-2022

Summary

Official Symbol
RAC1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
Rac family small GTPase 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9801
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000136238 MIM:602048; AllianceGenome:HGNC:9801
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MIG5; MRD48; Rac-1; TC-25; p21-Rac1
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in esophagus (RPKM 113.8), brain (RPKM 110.4) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See RAC1 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
7p22.1
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
110 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 7 NC_000007.14 (6374527..6403967)
110 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 7 NC_060931.1 (6493927..6523370)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (6414158..6443598)

Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene family with sequence similarity 220 member A Neighboring gene salivary gland specific protein SAGSIN1 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein SA pseudogene 73 Neighboring gene diacylglycerol lipase beta Neighboring gene KDEL endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 VLP production/release from Jurkat T lymphocytes requires an intact RAC1-WASF2-BAIAP2-ARP3 pathway as demonstrated by siRNA knockdown experiments PubMed
siRNA knockdown of RAC1 decreases virus production by Jurkat T lymphocytes (HIV VLP) by 50% as shown by immunoblotting as a result of 70% RAC1 knockdown efficiency; HIV VLP production is enhanced by RAC1 PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env SLIT2N, an active fragment of SLIT2, inhibits M-tropic HIV-1 gp120-induced Src signaling and activation of its downstream targets Pyk2, CDC42, Rac1, and paxillin in immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-induced Pyk2 activation mediated by intracellular Ca2+ release is required for HIV-1 gp120-mediated Rac-1 activation and membrane fusion PubMed
env Inhibition of the RhoA/Rac1 signal cascade by guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors limits the HIV-1 gp120-dependent early phase of the viral life cycle PubMed
env PLC-beta activation and intracellular Ca2+ release are required for HIV-1 gp120-mediated Rac-1 activation and membrane fusion via the G-alpha(q/11) family of G proteins PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 activates LIMK1/2 by increased levels of LIMK1/2 phosphorylation. Gp120-mediated LIMK activation is dependent on the Rack-PAK-LIMK pathway through phosphorylation of PAK2 and Rac1 PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef interacts with Rac1 in a protein complex including DOCK2 and ELMO1 PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef enhances the expression of Rac1 in human podocyte PubMed
nef Rac1 inhibits HIV-1 Nef-mediated CD80 and CD86 relocation from cell surface to the intracellular compartment PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef binds and activates Nef-associated kinase via interactions with the small GTPases CDC42 and Rac1, which are required for optimal levels of Nef-dependent viral replication in vivo PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef-mediated activation of Vav induces an increase of active Rac1 levels PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag HIV-1 Gag is required by the RAC1-WASF2-BAIAP2-ARP3 pathway for HIV VLP production/release from Jurkat T lymphocytes PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag is localized by RAC1 to the membrane of Jurkat T lymphocytes PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag activates RAC1 in Jurkat T cells and intracellular F-actin content is increased PubMed
Tat tat Knocking down Nox2 by siRNA blocks HIV-1 Tat-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase of NADPH oxidase activity, and Rac1 activation PubMed
tat Multivalent TatP activates Rac1 to slow molecular movement and induce internalization through macropinocytosis PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat activates the small GTPases Ras and Rac and the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK when expressed in human endothelial cells; this effect is mediated through the arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) region of Tat PubMed
tat In Jurkat cells expressing HIV-1 Tat, decreased expression levels are found for basic cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, beta-tubulin, annexin, cofilin, gelsolin, and Rac/Rho-GDI complex PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC111543

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables G protein activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables GTP binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables GTP binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables GTP binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
enables GTPase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables GTPase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables GTPase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables molecular adaptor activity IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein-containing complex binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables thioesterase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in Rac protein signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within actin cytoskeleton organization IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in actin filament organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in actin filament polymerization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in anatomical structure morphogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cell adhesion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cell migration IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cell motility IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cell projection assembly IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cell-matrix adhesion NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cortical cytoskeleton organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in engulfment of apoptotic cell IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in establishment or maintenance of cell polarity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in inflammatory response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in intracellular signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in lamellipodium assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in localization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in localization within membrane IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in motor neuron axon guidance IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of fibroblast migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-23 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in neuron migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of microtubule polymerization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of stress fiber assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of stress fiber assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell shape IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell size IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell size IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of lamellipodium assembly IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of neutrophil migration IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of respiratory burst IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of stress fiber assembly IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in respiratory burst IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to wounding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in ruffle assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within ruffle organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in ruffle organization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in small GTPase mediated signal transduction IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
part_of NADPH oxidase complex IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with actin filament IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in cell cortex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in cell projection IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in cytoplasmic vesicle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in cytoskeleton IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytosol ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in dendritic spine IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in dendritic spine IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
located_in extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in ficolin-1-rich granule membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
is_active_in glutamatergic synapse IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in glutamatergic synapse IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
located_in lamellipodium IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in melanosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in membrane ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
located_in nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in postsynapse IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in postsynapse IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
located_in recycling endosome membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in ruffle membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in secretory granule membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in trans-Golgi network IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1
Names
cell migration-inducing gene 5 protein
ras-like protein TC25
ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)
NP_008839.2
NP_061485.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

NEW Try the new Transcript table

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029431.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5033..34473
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_006908.5NP_008839.2  ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 isoform Rac1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_008839.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (Rac1) has a 57 bp in-frame deletion of exon 3b in the coding region, as compared to the variant Rac1b.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC009412
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS5348.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P63000, Q9BTB4
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A4D2P1
    Related
    ENSP00000258737.7, ENST00000348035.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd01871
    Location:3176
    Rac1_like; Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)-like consists of Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3
  2. NM_018890.4NP_061485.1  ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 isoform Rac1b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_061485.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (Rac1b) includes the alternatively spliced 57 bp region (exon 3b) that is missing in transcript variant Rac1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC009412
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS5349.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P63000
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A4D2P0
    Related
    ENSP00000348461.4, ENST00000356142.4
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd01871
    Location:3195
    Rac1_like; Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)-like consists of Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 110 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    6374527..6403967
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060931.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    6493927..6523370
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_198829.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_198829.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate if the correct translation start site is annotated.