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PPARD peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5467, updated on 6-Apr-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
PPARDprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
peroxisome proliferator activated receptor deltaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9235
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000112033 MIM:600409
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
FAAR; NUC1; NUCI; NR1C2; NUCII; PPARB
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. The encoded protein is thought to function as an integrator of transcriptional repression and nuclear receptor signaling. It may inhibit the ligand-induced transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors alpha and gamma, though evidence for this effect is inconsistent. Expression of this gene in colorectal cancer cells may be variable but is typically relatively low. Knockout studies in mice suggested a role for this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, differentiation, and epidermal cell proliferation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in placenta (RPKM 13.1), thyroid (RPKM 10.8) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See PPARD in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p21.31
Exon count:
13
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210226 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 6 NC_000006.12 (35342558..35428180)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (35310335..35395955)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 76 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 9100 Neighboring gene DEF6 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Neighboring gene makorin ring finger protein 6, pseudogene Neighboring gene FA complementation group E

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Genome-wide joint meta-analysis of SNP and SNP-by-smoking interaction identifies novel loci for pulmonary function.
GeneReviews: Not available
Genomewide pharmacogenomic study of metabolic side effects to antipsychotic drugs.
GeneReviews: Not available
Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.
GeneReviews: Not available
Novel susceptibility genes associated with diabetic cataract in a Taiwanese population.
GeneReviews: Not available

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr regulates mitochondrial respiration and enhances the activity of hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADH) through PPARbeta/delta PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances PPARbeta/delta-induced PDK4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1), and acetyl-coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2) mRNA expression in cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances PPARbeta/delta agonist GW501516-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) protein expression and phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1 (PDHE1alpha) at serine 293 in cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr physically interacts with the LXXLL motif (residues 64-68) of PPARbeta/delta in vivo and in vitro and enhances PPARbeta/delta-induced transcription activity PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC3931

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
NF-kappaB binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
drug binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
linoleic acid binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear receptor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
sequence-specific double-stranded DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
steroid hormone receptor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
transcription coactivator binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
adipose tissue development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
apoptotic signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
axon ensheathment ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cell differentiation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell population proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cell-substrate adhesion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cholesterol metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
decidualization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
embryo implantation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
fatty acid beta-oxidation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
fatty acid beta-oxidation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
fatty acid catabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
fatty acid metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
fatty acid transport ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
generation of precursor metabolites and energy TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
glucose metabolic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
glucose transmembrane transport NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
heart development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hormone-mediated signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
intracellular receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
keratinocyte migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
keratinocyte proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lipid metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cell growth IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cholesterol storage IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of inflammatory response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of myoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
phospholipid biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of epidermis development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of fat cell differentiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fatty acid metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fatty acid oxidation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of myoblast proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
proteoglycan metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of lipid metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucose IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lipid IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to vitamin A IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vitamin A metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
wound healing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
chromatin ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
chromatin ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Names
PPAR-beta
PPAR-delta
PPARD/MYO1D fusion
nuclear hormone receptor 1
nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 2
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012345.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..90621
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001171818.2NP_001165289.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Both variants 1 and 3 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB099507, AK122614, AL022721, BE503383, DA192442
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4803.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Related
    ENSP00000310928.4, ENST00000311565.4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  2. NM_001171819.2NP_001165290.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) has a distinct N-terminus and is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK122614, AK296425, AL022721, BE503383, DA192442
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54994.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    Related
    ENSP00000414372.2, ENST00000448077.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:134401
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:34117
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  3. NM_001171820.2NP_001165291.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks two in-frame exons in the coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK122614, AK304878, AL022721, BE503383, DA192442
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54995.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    Related
    ENSP00000413314.2, ENST00000418635.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:75342
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cl02596
    Location:4158
    NR_DBD_like; DNA-binding domain of nuclear receptors is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  4. NM_006238.5NP_006229.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1). Both variants 1 and 3 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK122614, BE503383, DA192442
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4803.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Related
    ENSP00000353916.3, ENST00000360694.8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  5. NM_177435.3NP_803184.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate exon in the 3' coding region and 3'UTR. It encodes isoform 2, which is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL022721, BC002715, CN332566, DA192442, DA476590
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4804.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    F1D8S7
    Related
    ENSP00000337063.2, ENST00000337400.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    cl11397
    Location:173359
    NR_LBD; The ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-activated transcription regulators

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210226

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    35342558..35428180
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017010974.1XP_016866463.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  2. XM_005249193.1XP_005249250.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  3. XM_011514707.1XP_011513009.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  4. XM_017010972.1XP_016866461.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  5. XM_006715120.1XP_006715183.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  6. XM_011514710.1XP_011513012.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  7. XM_017010973.1XP_016866462.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  8. XM_006715123.1XP_006715186.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q03181
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCW6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06932
    Location:173440
    NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  9. XM_024446474.1XP_024302242.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06965
    Location:73156
    NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    cl11397
    Location:173359
    NR_LBD; The ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-activated transcription regulators
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