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ENPP2 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5168, updated on 6-May-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
ENPP2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:3357
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000136960 MIM:601060
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ATX; NPP2; ATX-X; PDNP2; LysoPLD; AUTOTAXIN; PD-IALPHA
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene functions as both a phosphodiesterase, which cleaves phosphodiester bonds at the 5' end of oligonucleotides, and a phospholipase, which catalyzes production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular fluids. LPA evokes growth factor-like responses including stimulation of cell proliferation and chemotaxis. This gene product stimulates the motility of tumor cells and has angiogenic properties, and its expression is upregulated in several kinds of carcinomas. The gene product is secreted and further processed to make the biologically active form. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
Expression
Broad expression in placenta (RPKM 83.1), brain (RPKM 52.1) and 18 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See ENPP2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
8q24.12
Exon count:
29
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210226 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 8 NC_000008.11 (119557085..119673404, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 8 NC_000008.10 (120569326..120685630, complement)

Chromosome 8 - NC_000008.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene cellular communication network factor 3 Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 532 pseudogene Neighboring gene CYCS pseudogene 23 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 2988 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375727 Neighboring gene RN7SK pseudogene 153 Neighboring gene TATA-box binding protein associated factor 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.
GeneReviews: Not available

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 downregulates the expression of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2) in human B cells PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat decreases Autotaxin (ENPP2) secretion by mouse brain oligodendrocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits Autotaxin (ENPP2) lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) function of converting to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in oligodendrocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat interacts with Autotaxin (ENPP2) in mouse brain oligodendrocytes PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ26803

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodiesterase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables calcium ion binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables calcium ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables calcium ion binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables hydrolase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables lysophospholipase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables lysophospholipase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables nucleic acid binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables nucleotide diphosphatase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables phosphodiesterase I activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables polysaccharide binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables scavenger receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables transcription factor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables zinc ion binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables zinc ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables zinc ion binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular space ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
located_in plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2
Names
E-NPP 2
autotaxin-t
extracellular lysophospholipase D
phosphodiesterase I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase 2
plasma lysophospholipase D
NP_001035181.1
NP_001124335.1
NP_001317529.1
NP_006200.3
XP_006716647.1
XP_006716648.1
XP_006716650.1
XP_016869061.1
XP_016869062.1
XP_016869063.1
XP_016869064.1
XP_024302949.1
XP_024302950.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029498.3 RefSeqGene

    Range
    39738..121491
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001040092.3NP_001035181.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform 2 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001035181.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an exon in the coding region, but maintains the reading frame, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2, also known as beta) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI375195, AK315253, DA922156
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS34936.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13822
    Related
    ENSP00000075322.6, ENST00000075322.11
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00201
    Location:5598
    SO; Somatomedin B -like domains
    smart00477
    Location:615845
    NUC; DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease
    pfam01663
    Location:166478
    Phosphodiest; Type I phosphodiesterase / nucleotide pyrophosphatase
    cd16018
    Location:164518
    Enpp; Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, also called autotaxin
  2. NM_001130863.3NP_001124335.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform 3 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001124335.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks includes an alternate exon in the 5' coding region and lacks an exon in the 3' coding region, but maintains the reading frame, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3, also known as gamma) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC099818, AI375195, CA390514, DB468753, EU131011
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS47914.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13822
    Related
    ENSP00000428291.1, ENST00000522826.5
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00201
    Location:5598
    SO; Somatomedin B -like domains
    smart00477
    Location:640870
    NUC; DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease
    pfam01663
    Location:166478
    Phosphodiest; Type I phosphodiesterase / nucleotide pyrophosphatase
    cd16018
    Location:164518
    Enpp; Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, also called autotaxin
  3. NM_001330600.2NP_001317529.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC099818, AC107960
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS83317.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    E7EUF1
    Related
    ENSP00000403315.2, ENST00000427067.6
  4. NM_006209.5NP_006200.3  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform 1 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006200.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1, also known as alpha).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA256687, AC099818, DB468753, L35594
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6329.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13822
    Related
    ENSP00000259486.6, ENST00000259486.10
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00201
    Location:5598
    SO; Somatomedin B -like domains
    smart00477
    Location:667897
    NUC; DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease
    pfam01663
    Location:166530
    Phosphodiest; Type I phosphodiesterase / nucleotide pyrophosphatase
    cd16018
    Location:164570
    Enpp; Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, also called autotaxin

RNA

  1. NR_045555.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) uses an alternate 5'-most exon compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding due to the presence of an upstream ORF that is predicted to interfere with translation of the longest ORF; translation of the upstream ORF renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA256687, AK130313, BM694754, DA919550, DA922156
    Related
    ENST00000522167.5

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210226

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000008.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    119557085..119673404 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_024447182.1XP_024302950.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X9

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00201
    Location:5194
    SO; Somatomedin B -like domains
    smart00477
    Location:607837
    NUC; DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease
    pfam01663
    Location:162474
    Phosphodiest; Type I phosphodiesterase / nucleotide pyrophosphatase
  2. XM_017013573.1XP_016869062.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X6

  3. XM_017013574.1XP_016869063.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X7

  4. XM_024447181.1XP_024302949.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X3

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00201
    Location:5194
    SO; Somatomedin B -like domains
    smart00477
    Location:688918
    NUC; DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease
    pfam01663
    Location:162526
    Phosphodiest; Type I phosphodiesterase / nucleotide pyrophosphatase
  5. XM_017013575.1XP_016869064.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X8

  6. XM_017013572.1XP_016869061.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X5

  7. XM_006716587.1XP_006716650.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X4

    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00201
    Location:5598
    SO; Somatomedin B -like domains
    smart00477
    Location:663893
    NUC; DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease
    pfam01663
    Location:166530
    Phosphodiest; Type I phosphodiesterase / nucleotide pyrophosphatase
    cd16018
    Location:164570
    Enpp; Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, also called autotaxin
  8. XM_006716585.1XP_006716648.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00201
    Location:5598
    SO; Somatomedin B -like domains
    smart00477
    Location:688918
    NUC; DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease
    pfam01663
    Location:166530
    Phosphodiest; Type I phosphodiesterase / nucleotide pyrophosphatase
    cd16018
    Location:164570
    Enpp; Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, also called autotaxin
  9. XM_006716584.1XP_006716647.1  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00201
    Location:5598
    SO; Somatomedin B -like domains
    smart00477
    Location:692922
    NUC; DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease
    pfam01663
    Location:166530
    Phosphodiest; Type I phosphodiesterase / nucleotide pyrophosphatase
    cd16018
    Location:164570
    Enpp; Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, also called autotaxin
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