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RHOA ras homolog family member A [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 387, updated on 13-Jan-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
RHOAprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
ras homolog family member Aprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:667
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000067560 MIM:165390
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ARHA; ARH12; RHO12; EDFAOB; RHOH12
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, which cycle between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states and function as molecular switches in signal transduction cascades. Rho proteins promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulate cell shape, attachment, and motility. Overexpression of this gene is associated with tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in fat (RPKM 218.4), lung (RPKM 210.7) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See RHOA in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
3p21.31
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 3 NC_000003.12 (49359145..49411976, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (49396569..49449526, complement)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene GATA motif-containing MPRA enhancer 295 Neighboring gene glutathione peroxidase 1 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 7935 Neighboring gene T cell leukemia translocation altered Neighboring gene aminomethyltransferase Neighboring gene nicolin 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Inhibition of the RhoA/Rac1 signal cascade by guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors limits the HIV-1 gp120-dependent early phase of the viral life cycle PubMed
env Filamin-A-dependent activation of the RhoA-ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway is a major event in HIV-1 gp120-induced receptor clustering PubMed
Nef nef MYH9 is downregulated by HIV-1 infection, which indicates that MYH9 downregulation is likely part of the Nef-mediated signaling cascade that includes RhoA downregulation PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat increases permeability of human glomerular endothelial cells by activating Rho-A, pMLC, and c-Src pathways, which involves VEGF-A and FGF-2 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates OCLN (occludin) and LRP1 and upregulates AGER (RAGE), and in a RhoA/ROCK1 dependent manner as shown through hydroxyfasudil inhibition in hCMEC/D3 cells PubMed
tat The basic domain (49RKKRRQRRR57) of HIV-1 Tat is essential for enhancing the FGF-induced activation of ERK, Rho-A, and MLC2 and upregulates the expression of MMP-9 in human podocytes PubMed
tat Disruption of lipid rafts by depletion of membrane cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin abolishes Tat-mediated RhoA activation and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) upregulation PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated downregulation of occludin expression requires activities of the RhoA and p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK) proteins in primary human brain micro vascular endothelial cells PubMed
tat Treatment of human brain endothelial cells with Tat markedly elevates GTP-RhoA levels and the potential downstream effectors, such as myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 and myosin light chain PubMed
tat Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation PubMed
tat Tat activates both Ras and Rho GTPases in endothelial cells, leading to ERK phosphorylation PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat exerts several pleiotropic effects by interacting with different cellular receptors, including integrin alpha(v)beta3, which triggers the activation of focal adhesion kinase, RhoA and pp60src PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr-expressing Jurkat T cell clones showed a significant upregulation of RhoA expression PubMed
capsid gag Prostaglandin E2-mediated HIV-1 inhibition requires the EPAC/RAP/RhoA signaling pathway by downregulation of HIV-1 CA production PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GDP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
GTP binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
GTP binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
GTPase activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
GTPase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
GTPase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
GTPase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
myosin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein domain specific binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein kinase binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
GTP metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Rho protein signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Rho protein signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Rho protein signal transduction IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Rho protein signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Roundabout signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
actin cytoskeleton organization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
actin cytoskeleton reorganization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
actin filament bundle assembly IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
actin filament organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
alpha-beta T cell lineage commitment IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
androgen receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
angiotensin-mediated vasoconstriction involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apical junction assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
apolipoprotein A-I-mediated signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
beta selection IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell junction assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cell migration IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cell-matrix adhesion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to chemokine IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to cytokine stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cerebral cortex cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cleavage furrow formation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
endothelial cell migration IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
endothelial tube lumen extension IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
ephrin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
establishment of epithelial cell apical/basal polarity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
establishment or maintenance of actin cytoskeleton polarity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
forebrain radial glial cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitotic cleavage furrow formation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
mitotic spindle assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of axonogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell size IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell-substrate adhesion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of oxidative phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neuron projection morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
odontogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ossification involved in bone maturation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of T cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of actin filament polymerization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of axonogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of cell growth IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cytokinesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of neuron differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of podosome assembly IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of stress fiber assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of stress fiber assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of translation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein deubiquitination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of calcium ion transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cell migration IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell motility TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of cell shape IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of dendrite development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of focal adhesion assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton organization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of modification of postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of osteoblast proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by endothelin IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to amino acid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to ethanol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucocorticoid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucose IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to mechanical stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
skeletal muscle satellite cell migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
skeletal muscle tissue development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
stress fiber assembly IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
stress fiber assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
substantia nigra development HEP PubMed 
trabecula morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
viral process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
wound healing, spreading of cells ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
apical junction complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
axon IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell cortex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell cortex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell division site IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell junction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cell periphery IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with cleavage furrow IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with cleavage furrow IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoskeleton IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
dendritic spine IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
dendritic spine IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endosome IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
ficolin-1-rich granule membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
glutamatergic synapse IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
glutamatergic synapse IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
lamellipodium ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
midbody IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
colocalizes_with plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
postsynapse IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
postsynapse IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
ruffle membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
secretory granule membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
transforming protein RhoA
Names
Aplysia ras-related homolog 12
epididymis secretory sperm binding protein
oncogene RHO H12
small GTP binding protein RhoA
NP_001300870.1
NP_001300872.1
NP_001300873.1
NP_001300874.1
NP_001300875.1
NP_001300876.1
NP_001655.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_051308.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5122..57953
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001313941.2NP_001300870.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 1 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Both variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC104452, AC121247, BF966305
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2795.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P61586
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R324
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd01870
    Location:5179
    RhoA_like; Ras homology family A (RhoA)-like includes RhoA, RhoB and RhoC
  2. NM_001313943.2NP_001300872.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains an alternate 3' coding exon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC104452, AC121247, BQ721697
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS82775.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    C9JX21
    Related
    ENSP00000413587.1, ENST00000422781.5
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00174
    Location:8146
    RHO; Rho (Ras homology) subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases
    pfam13900
    Location:151182
    GVQW; Putative domain of unknown function
    cl21455
    Location:5138
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  3. NM_001313944.2NP_001300873.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) uses two alternate in-frame splice sites in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC104452, AC121247, AI269293, AK296654
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DKN9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd01870
    Location:5159
    RhoA_like; Ras homology family A (RhoA)-like includes RhoA, RhoB and RhoC
  4. NM_001313945.2NP_001300874.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate splice site in the 5' region and uses a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (4) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC121247, AI269293, AK307220, EL952052
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:198
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  5. NM_001313946.2NP_001300875.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks two alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region compared to variant 1.The resulting isoform (5) is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC104452, AC121247, AW403464
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:595
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  6. NM_001313947.2NP_001300876.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 6

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an alternate exon in the 5' coding region which results in a frameshift, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (6) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC104452, AC121247, BU509012
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS82774.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    C9JRM1
    Related
    ENSP00000394483.2, ENST00000454011.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:552
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  7. NM_001664.4NP_001655.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001655.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1). Both variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK130066, BC000946
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2795.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P61586
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R324, Q9BVT0
    Related
    ENSP00000400175.1, ENST00000418115.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd01870
    Location:5179
    RhoA_like; Ras homology family A (RhoA)-like includes RhoA, RhoB and RhoC

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    49359145..49411976 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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