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IL1B interleukin 1 beta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3553, updated on 17-May-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
IL1Bprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
interleukin 1 betaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:5992
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000125538 MIM:147720
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
IL-1; IL1F2; IL1beta; IL1-BETA
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Biased expression in bone marrow (RPKM 72.5), appendix (RPKM 32.9) and 12 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See IL1B in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2q14.1
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200228 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 2 NC_000002.12 (112829751..112836843, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (113587337..113594356, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene interleukin 1 alpha Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 10892 Neighboring gene X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis pseudogene 3 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373563

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 CN54, JRFL, and Ada Env (gp120) upregulates IL-6, CCL2, CCL4, CXCL8, and IL-1b through TLR4 and CCR5 induction in monocyte derived macrophages and hepatic stellate cells because treatment with an anti-TLR4 antibody mitigated the response PubMed
env Cytokines induced in vitro by HIV-1 gp120 in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) include interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-10, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 increases the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-1 in human monocytes PubMed
env Upregulation of the human proteins CCL2, CX3CL1, IL-1beta, and CXCL10 by HIV-1 gp120 involves CB2 receptor in mesencephalic neuronal/glial culture model PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 induces human glial cells to release more TNF-alpha and IL-1beta than untreated cells PubMed
env HIV-1 coat protein gp120 stimulates the release of interleukin-1beta from human neuroblastoma cells and causes cell death PubMed
env Concomitant activation of Lyn, Pyk2, and class IA PI3K are required for gp120-induced IL-1beta production PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 induces IL-1beta release from macrophages in a time- and concentration-dependent manner through binding to the chemokine receptor CCR5 and coupling to G(i)alpha protein PubMed
env Matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 participate in the maturation process of cleavage and activation of IL-1beta based on the intracerebroventricular injection of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates monocytes to release TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, and this effect can be blocked with soluble CD4 PubMed
env CD23 protein membrane expression is upregulated by HIV-1 gp120 and this upregulation induces the production of nitric oxide (NO) and IL-1beta PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env IL-1 and TNF-alpha production are induced by the treatment of cells with HIV-1 gp160 PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env HIV-1 inhibitors T20, NVP, AZT, and raltegravir significantly attenuate HIV-1-induced IL-1B production and NLRP3 activation, suggesting that HIV-1 gp41, RT, and IN are required for pro-IL-1B expression and NLRP3 activation PubMed
env HIV-1 gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides induce the production of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); in contrast, gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides are able to depress the production of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp41 stimulates microglial cell production of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6) and chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1alpha) PubMed
Nef nef Treatment of human monocyte-derived macrophages with soluble recombinant HIV-1 Nef (rNef) upregulates the transcription of genes for several inflammatory factors, including IL-1beta, which is released upon rNef treatment PubMed
nef IL-1beta, IL-12, and IL-15 are factors involved in the upregulation of IFN-gamma expression in coculture between Nef-pulsed iDCs and NK cells PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef and ALK show similar effects by increasing different cytokines/chemokines, such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and RANTES, that may be relevant for HAD pathogenesis PubMed
nef Expression of Nef from the brain-derived HIV-1 isolate YU-2 in astrocytes significantly upregulates IL-1beta expression PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag HIV-1 Gag co-localizes with bioactive IL-1B in germinal center of HIV-1 infected patients PubMed
gag Stimulation of HIV-1 infected human adipocytes by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta increases the levels of HIV-1 Gag production PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat inhibitor didehydro-Cortistatin A (dCA), an analog of a natural steroidal alkaloid, potently inhibits Tat-mediated modulation of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates IL-1beta expression in a variety of cell types, including macrophages, astrocytes, microglial cells, monocytes, and primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat- and oxovanadate-treated microglial cells synergistically induce release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta proteins, which involves CD45 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways PubMed
tat Specific C/EBP and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding elements within the IL-1beta promoter are involved in Tat regulation of IL-1beta production PubMed
tat Phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway-dependent phosphorylation of p44/42 and JNK MAP kinases is partially involved in IL-1beta induction by HIV-1 Tat PubMed
tat Over-expression of PPARalpha or PPARgamma attenuates Tat-induced up-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CCL2, and E-selectin PubMed
tat Sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) significantly reverses HIV-1 Tat-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in THP-1 cells PubMed
tat IL-1 stimulated NO production and iNOS mRNA expression are down-regulated by pretreatment with HIV-1 Tat-SOD fusion proteins in cultured chondrocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates IL-1beta expression in U937 cells through the inhibition of CD26 PubMed
tat IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma synergize with HIV-1 Tat to promote in nude mice the development of angioproliferative Kaposi's sarcoma-like lesions PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr activates IL-1B activity in MDMs PubMed
integrase gag-pol HIV-1 inhibitors T20, NVP, AZT, and raltegravir significantly attenuate HIV-1-induced IL-1B production and NLRP3 activation, suggesting that HIV-1 gp41, RT, and IN are required for pro-IL-1B expression and NLRP3 activation PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol HIV-1 protease cleaves pro-interleukin 1 beta (pro-IL-1 beta) in vitro at amino acid positions 23-24 and 98-99 PubMed
reverse transcriptase gag-pol HIV-1 inhibitors T20, NVP, AZT, and raltegravir significantly attenuate HIV-1-induced IL-1B production and NLRP3 activation, suggesting that HIV-1 gp41, RT, and IN are required for pro-IL-1B expression and NLRP3 activation PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cytokine activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
integrin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
interleukin-1 receptor binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein domain specific binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
MAPK cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
activation of MAPK activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
astrocyte activation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to drug IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to organic cyclic compound IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to organic substance IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
ectopic germ cell programmed cell death IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
embryo implantation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
fever generation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hyaluronan biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
inflammatory response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
inflammatory response NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
interleukin-1 beta production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
interleukin-6 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
monocyte aggregation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of MAP kinase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of adiponectin secretion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gap junction assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of glucose transmembrane transport ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of neurogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of synaptic transmission ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
neutrophil chemotaxis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of JNK cascade ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of RNA biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of T cell mediated immunity IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of T cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell cytokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of angiogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell adhesion molecule production NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of complement activation IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fever generation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of gene expression IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of glial cell proliferation IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of histone acetylation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of histone phosphorylation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of inflammatory response IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interferon-gamma production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipid catabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of myosin light chain kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of phagocytosis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein export from nucleus NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase B signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of defense response to virus by host IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of insulin secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of neurogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to ATP IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to carbohydrate IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to interleukin-1 IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to lipopolysaccharide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
sequestering of triglyceride IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
smooth muscle adaptation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
lysosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
secretory granule IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
interleukin-1 beta
Names
IL-1 beta
catabolin
interleukin 1beta
preinterleukin 1 beta
pro-interleukin-1-beta

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_008851.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..12029
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000576.3NP_000567.1  interleukin-1 beta proprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000567.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC079753
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2102.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01584
    Related
    ENSP00000263341.2, ENST00000263341.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00125
    Location:119265
    IL1; Interleukin-1 homologues
    pfam02394
    Location:1102
    IL1_propep; Interleukin-1 propeptide

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    112829751..112836843 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017003988.2XP_016859477.1  interleukin-1 beta isoform X1

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