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GDF15 growth differentiation factor 15 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 9518, updated on 5-Aug-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
GDF15provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
growth differentiation factor 15provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:30142
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000130513 MIM:605312; Vega:OTTHUMG00000183360
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PDF; MIC1; PLAB; MIC-1; NAG-1; PTGFB; GDF-15
Summary
This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer. The protein is expressed in a broad range of cell types, acts as a pleiotropic cytokine and is involved in the stress response program of cells after cellular injury. Increased protein levels are associated with disease states such as tissue hypoxia, inflammation, acute injury and oxidative stress. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
Expression
Biased expression in placenta (RPKM 62.0), prostate (RPKM 53.1) and 11 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GDF15 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
19p13.11
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 19 NC_000019.10 (18382170..18389177)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (18496968..18499986)

Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 513, pseudogene Neighboring gene pyroglutamyl-peptidase I Neighboring gene microRNA 3189 Neighboring gene leucine rich repeat containing 25 Neighboring gene single stranded DNA binding protein 4 Neighboring gene inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cytokine activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
BMP signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
SMAD protein signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
SMAD protein signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
activation of MAPK activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of growth hormone receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of multicellular organism growth ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of MAPK cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of myoblast fusion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
reduction of food intake in response to dietary excess IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of MAPK cascade IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of apoptotic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi apparatus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
growth/differentiation factor 15
Names
NRG-1
NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1
NSAID-activated gene 1 protein
NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein
PTGF-beta
macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1
placental TGF-beta
placental bone morphogenetic protein
prostate differentiation factor

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_004864.3NP_004855.2  growth/differentiation factor 15 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004855.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC008962, BQ901034, CA441527
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12376.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q99988
    Related
    ENSP00000252809.3, OTTHUMP00000271537, ENST00000252809.3, OTTHUMT00000466340
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00204
    Location:211308
    TGFB; Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family
    cl26309
    Location:23147
    MscS_TM; Mechanosensitive ion channel inner membrane domain 1

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    18382170..18389177
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_024451789.1XP_024307557.1  growth/differentiation factor 15 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00204
    Location:211308
    TGFB; Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family
    cl26309
    Location:23147
    MscS_TM; Mechanosensitive ion channel inner membrane domain 1
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