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PER2 period circadian regulator 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 8864, updated on 3-Nov-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
PER2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
period circadian regulator 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:8846
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000132326 MIM:603426
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
FASPS; FASPS1
Summary
This gene is a member of the Period family of genes and is expressed in a circadian pattern in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary circadian pacemaker in the mammalian brain. Genes in this family encode components of the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, metabolism, and behavior. This gene is upregulated by CLOCK/ARNTL heterodimers but then represses this upregulation in a feedback loop using PER/CRY heterodimers to interact with CLOCK/ARNTL. Polymorphisms in this gene may increase the risk of getting certain cancers and have been linked to sleep disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in testis (RPKM 8.7), gall bladder (RPKM 7.6) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PER2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2q37.3
Exon count:
25
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 2 NC_000002.12 (238244038..238290102, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (239152679..239198678, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene TAR DNA binding protein pseudogene Neighboring gene hes family bHLH transcription factor 6 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC112268433 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373961 Neighboring gene TRAF3 interacting protein 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • BMAL1:CLOCK,NPAS2 activates circadian gene expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    BMAL1:CLOCK,NPAS2 activates circadian gene expression, organism-specific biosystemAs inferred from mouse, BMAL1:CLOCK (ARNTL:CLOCK) and BMAL1:NPAS2 (ARNTL:NPAS2) heterodimers bind to sequence elements (E boxes) in the promoters of target genes and enhance transcription (Gekakis et...
  • Circadian Clock, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Circadian Clock, organism-specific biosystemAt the center of the mammalian circadian clock is a negative transcription/translation-based feedback loop: The BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 (ARNTL:CLOCK/NPAS2) heterodimer transactivates CRY and PER genes by b...
  • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Circadian rhythm, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian rhythm, organism-specific biosystemCircadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of ...
  • Circadian rhythm, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian rhythm, conserved biosystemCircadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of ...
  • Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystemThis is currently not a pathway but a list of circadian rhythm related genes and proteins. The source for this information is the gene ontology. The genes and proteins were filtered for "circadian rh...
  • Diurnally Regulated Genes with Circadian Orthologs, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Diurnally Regulated Genes with Circadian Orthologs, organism-specific biosystemHuman genes regulated in the diurnal comparison with orthologues that display circadian regulation in mouse heart and liver (Panda 2002, Storch 2002), and SCN (Panda 2002). The 608 significantly regu...
  • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
  • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
  • Melatonin metabolism and effects, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Melatonin metabolism and effects, organism-specific biosystemMelatonin is an important regulator of circadian rythmus and influences also insulin secretion, immune function, retinal function and neuroprotection. The synthesis starts with the amino acid tryptop...
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • KIAA0347

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transcription coactivator activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
transcription corepressor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transcription factor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
circadian regulation of gene expression IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
circadian regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
circadian regulation of translation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
circadian rhythm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
fatty acid metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
gluconeogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
glycogen biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
histone H3 deacetylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
lactate biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of circadian rhythm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of fat cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of protein ubiquitination ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cell cycle ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of circadian rhythm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of glutamate uptake involved in transmission of nerve impulse ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of insulin secretion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of neurogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of vasoconstriction ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
response to ischemia ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
response to light stimulus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
white fat cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleolus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
period circadian protein homolog 2
Names
circadian clock protein PERIOD 2
hPER2
period 2
period circadian clock 2
period circadian protein 2
period homolog 2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012146.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4957..49523
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_022817.3NP_073728.1  period circadian protein homolog 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_073728.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AB002345, AC012485, DA226434
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2528.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O15055
    Related
    ENSP00000254657.3, ENST00000254657.8
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd00130
    Location:333434
    PAS; PAS domain; PAS motifs appear in archaea, eubacteria and eukarya. Probably the most surprising identification of a PAS domain was that in EAG-like K+-channels. PAS domains have been found to bind ligands, and to act as sensors for light and oxygen in ...
    pfam08447
    Location:346430
    PAS_3; PAS fold
    pfam12114
    Location:10461232
    Period_C; Period protein 2/3C-terminal region

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109.20190905

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    238244038..238290102 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005246111.4XP_005246168.1  period circadian protein homolog 2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005246168.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O15055
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd00130
    Location:333434
    PAS; PAS domain; PAS motifs appear in archaea, eubacteria and eukarya. Probably the most surprising identification of a PAS domain was that in EAG-like K+-channels. PAS domains have been found to bind ligands, and to act as sensors for light and oxygen in ...
    pfam08447
    Location:346430
    PAS_3; PAS fold
    pfam12114
    Location:10461232
    Period_C; Period protein 2/3C-terminal region
  2. XM_006712824.4XP_006712887.1  period circadian protein homolog 2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006712887.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O15055
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd00130
    Location:333434
    PAS; PAS domain; PAS motifs appear in archaea, eubacteria and eukarya. Probably the most surprising identification of a PAS domain was that in EAG-like K+-channels. PAS domains have been found to bind ligands, and to act as sensors for light and oxygen in ...
    pfam08447
    Location:346430
    PAS_3; PAS fold
    pfam12114
    Location:10461232
    Period_C; Period protein 2/3C-terminal region

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_003894.3: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_003894.3: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
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