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WARS tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7453, updated on 5-Aug-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
WARSprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:12729
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000140105 MIM:191050; Vega:OTTHUMG00000171572
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
HMN9; IFI53; IFP53; GAMMA-2
Summary
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(trp) with tryptophan and is induced by interferon. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class I tRNA synthetase family. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Broad expression in placenta (RPKM 128.2), appendix (RPKM 87.1) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See WARS in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
14q32.2
Exon count:
15
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 14 NC_000014.9 (100333788..100376343, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (100800125..100842680, complement)

Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 523, pseudogene Neighboring gene solute carrier family 25 member 47 Neighboring gene NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B3 pseudogene 4 Neighboring gene WD repeat domain 25 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370664 Neighboring gene high mobility group nucleosome binding domain 1 pseudogene 25

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
capsid gag The Capsid domain of HIV-1 Gag is sufficient for the interaction of Gag with tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase in an in vitro pull-down assay PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
kinase inhibitor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein domain specific binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
angiogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein complex assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
translation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
nucleus HDA PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein-containing complex IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
Names
hWRS
interferon-induced protein 53
trpRS
tryptophan tRNA ligase 1, cytoplasmic
NP_004175.2
NP_776049.1
NP_998810.1
NP_998811.1
XP_005268101.1
XP_006720312.1
XP_011535435.1
XP_011535438.1
XP_016877116.1
XP_016877118.1
XP_024305474.1
XP_024305475.1
XP_024305476.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029914.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..47556
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_004184.3NP_004175.2  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004175.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript. Variants 1 and 2 both encode isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK130698, AV710027, BC017489
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS9960.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6K8
    Related
    ENSP00000376620.2, OTTHUMP00000246493, ENST00000392882.6, OTTHUMT00000414234
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
  2. NM_173701.1NP_776049.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_776049.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 both encode isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK056100, AK130698, BC017489
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS9960.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6K8
    Related
    ENSP00000347495.2, OTTHUMP00000246495, ENST00000355338.6, OTTHUMT00000414236
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
  3. NM_213645.1NP_998810.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_998810.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an alternate exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) uses a downstream start codon but has the same C-terminus compared to isoform a. Variants 3 and 4 both encode isoform b.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK130698, BC017489, BG717903
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS9961.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    Related
    ENSP00000351481.4, OTTHUMP00000246494, ENST00000358655.8, OTTHUMT00000414235
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:44425
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cl00349
    Location:223
    S15_NS1_EPRS_RNA-bind; S15/NS1/EPRS_RNA-binding domain. This short domain consists of a helix-turn-helix structure, which can bind to several types of RNA. It is found in the ribosomal protein S15, the influenza A viral nonstructural protein (NSA) and in several eukaryotic ...
  4. NM_213646.1NP_998811.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_998811.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR and coding region compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) uses a downstream start codon but has the same C-terminus compared to isoform a. Variants 3 and 4 both encode isoform b.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK130698, BC017489, BM561448, BM834473
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS9961.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    Related
    ENSP00000339485.5, OTTHUMP00000246496, ENST00000344102.9, OTTHUMT00000414237
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:44425
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cl00349
    Location:223
    S15_NS1_EPRS_RNA-bind; S15/NS1/EPRS_RNA-binding domain. This short domain consists of a helix-turn-helix structure, which can bind to several types of RNA. It is found in the ribosomal protein S15, the influenza A viral nonstructural protein (NSA) and in several eukaryotic ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    100333788..100376343 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011537133.2XP_011535435.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011535435.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6K8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
  2. XM_024449707.1XP_024305475.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
  3. XM_017021629.1XP_016877118.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6K8
    Related
    ENSP00000451460.1, ENST00000557135.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
  4. XM_017021627.2XP_016877116.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6K8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
  5. XM_024449708.1XP_024305476.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X2

  6. XM_024449706.1XP_024305474.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
  7. XM_005268044.4XP_005268101.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005268101.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6K8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
  8. XM_011537136.3XP_011535438.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011535438.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:44425
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cl00349
    Location:223
    S15_NS1_EPRS_RNA-bind; S15/NS1/EPRS_RNA-binding domain. This short domain consists of a helix-turn-helix structure, which can bind to several types of RNA. It is found in the ribosomal protein S15, the influenza A viral nonstructural protein (NSA) and in several eukaryotic ...
  9. XM_006720249.3XP_006720312.1  tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006720312.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23381
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6K8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02486
    Location:85466
    PLN02486; aminoacyl-tRNA ligase
    cd00936
    Location:1261
    WEPRS_RNA; WEPRS_RNA binding domain. This short RNA-binding domain is found in several higher eukaryote aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). It is found in multiple copies in eukaryotic bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetases (EPRS) in a region that separates ...
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