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VEGFA vascular endothelial growth factor A [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7422, updated on 27-Jan-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
VEGFAprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
vascular endothelial growth factor Aprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:12680
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000112715 MIM:192240
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
VPF; VEGF; MVCD1
Summary
This gene is a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. It encodes a heparin-binding protein, which exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer. This growth factor induces proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells, and is essential for both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Disruption of this gene in mice resulted in abnormal embryonic blood vessel formation. This gene is upregulated in many known tumors and its expression is correlated with tumor stage and progression. Elevated levels of this protein are found in patients with POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with microvascular complications of diabetes 1 (MVCD1) and atherosclerosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. There is also evidence for alternative translation initiation from upstream non-AUG (CUG) codons resulting in additional isoforms. A recent study showed that a C-terminally extended isoform is produced by use of an alternative in-frame translation termination codon via a stop codon readthrough mechanism, and that this isoform is antiangiogenic. Expression of some isoforms derived from the AUG start codon is regulated by a small upstream open reading frame, which is located within an internal ribosome entry site. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Expression
Broad expression in thyroid (RPKM 146.9), prostate (RPKM 69.5) and 21 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See VEGFA in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p21.1
Exon count:
9
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 6 NC_000006.12 (43770209..43786487)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (43737946..43754224)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene radial spoke head component 9 Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18A Neighboring gene exosome component 8 pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375070 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986598 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375069

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Microvascular complications of diabetes 1
MedGen: C2676832 OMIM: 603933 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

Copy number response

Description
Copy number response
Triplosensitivity

No evidence available (Last evaluated (2012-04-25)

ClinGen Genome Curation Page
Haploinsufficency

Little evidence for dosage pathogenicity (Last evaluated (2012-04-25)

ClinGen Genome Curation PagePubMed

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
A genome-wide association study for coronary artery disease identifies a novel susceptibility locus in the major histocompatibility complex.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Common variants near FRK/COL10A1 and VEGFA are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Identification of cis- and trans-acting genetic variants explaining up to half the variation in circulating vascular endothelial growth factor levels.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
New loci associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 modulates expression of the cytokines IL1beta, IL3, IL6, IL10, IL13, IL15, IFNbeta2A, IFNgamma, IFNomega, TNFalpha, VEGF, VEGF B, and LIF in PBMCs and MDMs PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with IL-6 to enhance vascular tube formation, cell proliferation, VEGF expression, and phosphorylated AKT activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef increases expression of both VEGF and its transcriptional regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha (HIF-2alpha), in a Src kinase-and Stat3-dependent manner PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat increases permeability of human glomerular endothelial cells by activating Rho-A, pMLC, and c-Src pathways, which involves VEGF-A or FGF-2. PubMed
tat VEGF can compete with HIV-1 Tat chemotactic activity in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells, indicating Tat may cooperate with VEGF in activation of VEGFR-2 on KS precursor spindle and endothelial cells and contribute to the aggressiveness of AIDS-KS lesions PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates VEGFA (VEGF) expression in HUVEC and EA.hy926 cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates members of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family (PDGFA, VEGFA,VEGFB, VEGFC) in mammary epithelial cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat enhances vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of fibroblasts and human endothelial cells, which correlates with upregulation of CD31, CD34, SMA, VEGF, b-FGF, and cyclin D1 expression PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat enhances Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vIL-6-induced cell proliferation, cellular transformation, vascular tube formation, and VEGF production in tumor cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to endothelial cells by downregulating the expression of VEGF-induced endothelial markers such as Flt-1, KDR and vWF PubMed
tat The chemokine like region of HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 24-51) induces the release of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an effect linked to Tat induced angiogenesis PubMed
Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu-expressing U937 monocytes coculture with LX2 stellate cells to upregulate expression of profibrogenic markers COL-1, PCT, SMA-1, VEGF, and MMP2, which is inhibited by MIF treatment PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC70609

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
chemoattractant activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
chemoattractant activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
extracellular matrix binding IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
fibronectin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
heparin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
heparin binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
platelet-derived growth factor receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
receptor ligand activity IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
VEGF-activated neuropilin signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
activation of protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
angiogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
artery morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
camera-type eye morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cardiac muscle fiber development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cardiac vascular smooth muscle cell development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cell maturation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to hypoxia IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular stress response to acid chemical IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
commissural neuron axon guidance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
coronary artery morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
coronary vein morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
dopaminergic neuron differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
endothelial cell chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
epithelial cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
eye photoreceptor cell development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
heart morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
in utero embryonic development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
induction of positive chemotaxis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
induction of positive chemotaxis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
kidney development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
lactation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
lung development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
lymph vessel morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
macrophage differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mammary gland alveolus development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
mesoderm development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
monocyte differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
motor neuron migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of adherens junction organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nervous system development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
outflow tract morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
ovarian follicle development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
platelet degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of CREB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of angiogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of angiogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of axon extension involved in axon guidance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell proliferation involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation by VEGF-activated platelet derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cellular component movement IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF-activated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of histone deacetylase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of leukocyte migration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mast cell chemotaxis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of positive chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein complex assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase C signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase D signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of receptor internalization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of retinal ganglion cell axon guidance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
NOT positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular permeability IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
post-embryonic camera-type eye development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
primitive erythrocyte differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of cell shape IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of nitric oxide mediated signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of retinal ganglion cell axon guidance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
response to hypoxia IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to hypoxia IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
sprouting angiogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
surfactant homeostasis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
tube formation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vasculogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell-cell adherens junction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular matrix NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
secretory granule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
vascular endothelial growth factor A
Names
vascular endothelial growth factor A121
vascular endothelial growth factor A165
vascular permeability factor

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_008732.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4996..21272
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001025366.3NP_001020537.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform a

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (a) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon. This is the longest isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, S85192
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS34457.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A087WUD8
    Related
    ENSP00000361125.4, ENST00000372055.8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230312
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:364412
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  2. NM_001025367.3NP_001020538.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform c

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (c) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, AJ010438, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS47433.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000389864.3, ENST00000413642.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230312
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:341389
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  3. NM_001025368.3NP_001020539.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform d

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (d) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB021221, AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS34458.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A087X0B2
    Related
    ENSP00000361137.3, ENST00000372067.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230312
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:318371
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  4. NM_001025369.3NP_001020540.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform e

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001020540.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an alternate in-frame exon, and uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (e) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, AF091352, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS47435.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000388663.2, ENST00000417285.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230312
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:318353
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  5. NM_001025370.3NP_001020541.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform f

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks two alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (f) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, AF214570, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS47434.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A087WTP4
    Related
    ENSP00000361134.4, ENST00000372064.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230312
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
  6. NM_001033756.3NP_001028928.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform g

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001028928.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an alternate in-frame exon and uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (g) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, AF430806, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS47432.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A087X1L1
    Related
    ENSP00000421561.1, ENST00000482630.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230312
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:318365
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  7. NM_001171622.2NP_001165093.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform h

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (8) lacks three alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (h) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, DQ229900
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55007.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000317598.6, ENST00000324450.10
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230311
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
  8. NM_001171623.1NP_001165094.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform i precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165094.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (i, also referred to as VEGF206) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter at the N-terminus, compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, S85192
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55010.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RD33
    Related
    ENSP00000430479.1, ENST00000523873.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:184232
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  9. NM_001171624.1NP_001165095.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform j precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165095.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (j, also referred to as VEGF189) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, M27281
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55009.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RD37
    Related
    ENSP00000428321.1, ENST00000520948.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:167215
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  10. NM_001171625.1NP_001165096.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform k precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165096.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (k, also referred to as VEGF183) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, AJ010438, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55008.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000430829.1, ENST00000518689.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:161209
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  11. NM_001171626.1NP_001165097.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform VEGF-A precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165097.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the 3' coding region compared to variant 1. It can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from an in-frame downstream AUG. This RefSeq represents isoform VEGF-A (also referred to as VEGF165 or VEGF-A165), which is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a. This variant also encodes a C-terminally extended isoform (VEGF-Ax) that results from the use of an alternative in-frame, downstream translation termination codon (UGA). Isoform VEGF-Ax is represented in NM_001317010.1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB021221, AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55012.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A0Y0IMM4
    Related
    ENSP00000429643.1, ENST00000523950.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:143191
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  12. NM_001171627.1NP_001165098.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform m precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165098.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an alternate in-frame exon, and uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (m, also referred to as VEGF148) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, AF091352, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55011.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000429008.1, ENST00000523125.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:143173
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  13. NM_001171628.1NP_001165099.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform n precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165099.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks two alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (n, also referred to as VEGF121) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, AF214570, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55014.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000361148.4, ENST00000372077.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
  14. NM_001171629.1NP_001165100.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform o precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165100.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an alternate in-frame exon and uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (o, also referred to as VEGF165b) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, AF430806, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55013.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000430002.1, ENST00000518824.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:143185
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  15. NM_001171630.1NP_001165101.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform p precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165101.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (8) lacks three alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (p, also referred to as VEGF111) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, DQ229900
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55015.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000409911.2, ENST00000457104.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50131
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
  16. NM_001204384.1NP_001191313.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform q precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001191313.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (9) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region and lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (q, also referred to as VEGF145) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL136131, BC065522, M27281
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
  17. NM_001204385.2NP_001191314.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform r

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (9) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region and lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform represented in this RefSeq (isoform r) is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL136131, BC065522, M27281
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000430594.1, ENST00000519767.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230312
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
  18. NM_001287044.2NP_001273973.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform s

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273973.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (10) has an alternate 5' exon, which results in translation initiation at a downstream AUG start codon, and lacks an in-frame exon in the coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (s) has a shorter N-terminus and lacks an internal segment, compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL136131, BC058855, BC065522, BX442364, HY066915
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS69125.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A2A2V4
    Related
    ENSP00000230480.6, ENST00000230480.10
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:22104
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:115163
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  19. NM_001317010.1NP_001303939.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform VEGF-Ax precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) is identical to NM_001171626.1; however, it uses an alternative in-frame, downstream translation termination codon (UGA), which results in a longer, C-terminally extended isoform (VEGF-Ax) compared to isoform VEGF-A (also referred to as VEGF165 or VEGF-A165). Unlike isoform VEGF-A, which is proangiogenic, VEGF-Ax exhibits antiangiogenic activity. As the upstream UGA stop codon has been shown to be recoded as serine (PMID:24949972), its location in the VEGF-Ax isoform (aa 192) is denoted by an 'S'.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB021221, AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:50132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:140191
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  20. NM_003376.6NP_003367.4  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003367.4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform represented in this RefSeq (isoform b) is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, M27281
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4907.2
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15692
    Related
    ENSP00000388465.2, ENST00000425836.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:230312
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    pfam14554
    Location:347395
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    43770209..43786487
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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