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TGM2 transglutaminase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7052, updated on 11-Nov-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
TGM2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
transglutaminase 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:11778
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000198959 MIM:190196; Vega:OTTHUMG00000032437
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TGC; TG(C)
Summary
Transglutaminases are enzymes that catalyze the crosslinking of proteins by epsilon-gamma glutamyl lysine isopeptide bonds. While the primary structure of transglutaminases is not conserved, they all have the same amino acid sequence at their active sites and their activity is calcium-dependent. The protein encoded by this gene acts as a monomer, is induced by retinoic acid, and appears to be involved in apoptosis. Finally, the encoded protein is the autoantigen implicated in celiac disease. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Broad expression in placenta (RPKM 177.0), endometrium (RPKM 107.6) and 16 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TGM2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
20q11.23
Exon count:
14
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 20 NC_000020.11 (38127387..38166578, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (36756863..36794910, complement)

Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene TELO2 interacting protein 1 Neighboring gene regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 1B Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 237, pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107987281 Neighboring gene KIAA1755 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC149684 Neighboring gene bactericidal permeability increasing protein

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Cyclosporin (CsA) treatment prevents gp120-dependent induction of apoptosis by blocking the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent effector elements such as transglutaminase (TG) proteins PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env The HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is an amino acceptor and donor substrate for transglutaminase in vitro; soluble CD4 can block the transglutaminase-catalyzed incorporation of the polyamine spermidine into HIV-1 gp41 PubMed
Rev rev tissue transglutaminase has been proposed to interfere with HIV replication through a specific interaction with eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) that inhibits Rev-mediated nuclear export of viral mRNA PubMed
Tat tat Microarray analysis indicates HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Huntington's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Huntington's disease, organism-specific biosystemHuntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality...
  • Huntington's disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Huntington's disease, conserved biosystemHuntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality...
  • Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein domain specific binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2
Names
C polypeptide, protein-glutamine-gamma-glutamyltransferase
TGase C
TGase H
TGase-2
tissue transglutaminase
transglutaminase C
transglutaminase H
NP_001310245.1
NP_001310246.1
NP_001310247.1
NP_004604.2
NP_945189.1
XP_011527330.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001323316.1NP_001310245.1  protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 isoform a

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL031651, BQ011237, DB064707
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13302.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21980
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HWG3
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00460
    Location:269361
    TGc; Transglutaminase/protease-like homologues
    COG1305
    Location:271369
    YebA; Transglutaminase-like enzyme, putative cysteine protease [Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones]
    pfam00868
    Location:6120
    Transglut_N; Transglutaminase family
    pfam00927
    Location:587686
    Transglut_C; Transglutaminase family, C-terminal ig like domain
  2. NM_001323317.1NP_001310246.1  protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 isoform c

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK295775, AL031651, BG772156, BQ011237, HY030430
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DIT7
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00460
    Location:188280
    TGc; Transglutaminase/protease-like homologues
    COG1305
    Location:190288
    YebA; Transglutaminase-like enzyme, putative cysteine protease [Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones]
    pfam00868
    Location:663
    Transglut_N; Transglutaminase family
    pfam00927
    Location:506605
    Transglut_C; Transglutaminase family, C-terminal ig like domain
  3. NM_001323318.1NP_001310247.1  protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 isoform d

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK300292, AL031651, BG772156, BQ011237, EU794665, HY030430
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DTN7, V9HWG3
  4. NM_004613.3NP_004604.2  protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004604.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (a). Both variants 1 and 5 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK126508, AL031651, BC003551, BG772156, BQ011237, BQ430537, BQ938957, HY030430
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13302.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21980
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HWG3
    Related
    ENSP00000355330.2, OTTHUMP00000030960, ENST00000361475.6, OTTHUMT00000079151
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00460
    Location:269361
    TGc; Transglutaminase/protease-like homologues
    COG1305
    Location:271369
    YebA; Transglutaminase-like enzyme, putative cysteine protease [Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones]
    pfam00868
    Location:6120
    Transglut_N; Transglutaminase family
    pfam00927
    Location:587686
    Transglut_C; Transglutaminase family, C-terminal ig like domain
  5. NM_198951.2NP_945189.1  protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_945189.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 3' UTR and coding region compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) is shorter and has a unique C-terminus compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA493184, BC003551, BG772156, HY030430
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21980
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00460
    Location:269361
    TGc; Transglutaminase/protease-like homologues
    pfam00868
    Location:4122
    Transglut_N; Transglutaminase family
    pfam00927
    Location:473538
    Transglut_C; Transglutaminase family, C-terminal ig like domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000020.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    38127387..38166578 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011529028.1XP_011527330.1  protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527330.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21980
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HWG3
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00460
    Location:269361
    TGc; Transglutaminase/protease-like homologues
    COG1305
    Location:271369
    YebA; Transglutaminase-like enzyme, putative cysteine protease [Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones]
    pfam00868
    Location:6120
    Transglut_N; Transglutaminase family
    pfam00927
    Location:587686
    Transglut_C; Transglutaminase family, C-terminal ig like domain
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