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ACTB actin beta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 60, updated on 9-Feb-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
ACTBprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
actin betaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:132
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000075624 MIM:102630
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
BRWS1; PS1TP5BP1
Summary
This gene encodes one of six different actin proteins. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure, integrity, and intercellular signaling. The encoded protein is a major constituent of the contractile apparatus and one of the two nonmuscle cytoskeletal actins that are ubiquitously expressed. Mutations in this gene cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1, which is characterized by intellectual disability with a distinctive facial appearance in human patients. Numerous pseudogenes of this gene have been identified throughout the human genome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in appendix (RPKM 2395.4), lymph node (RPKM 2072.0) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See ACTB in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
7p22.1
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 7 NC_000007.14 (5527148..5530601, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (5566779..5570232, complement)

Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 18 Neighboring gene microRNA 589 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC221946 Neighboring gene S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 4030

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Copy number response

Description
Copy number response
Haploinsufficency

No evidence available (Last evaluated (2015-02-05)

ClinGen Genome Curation Page
Triplosensitivity

No evidence available (Last evaluated (2015-02-05)

ClinGen Genome Curation Page

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Common variants in left/right asymmetry genes and pathways are associated with relative hand skill.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Gelsolin overexpression impairs HIV-1 gp120-induced cortical F-actin reorganization and capping and gp120-mediated CD4-CCR5 and CD4-CXCR4 redistribution in permissive lymphocytes PubMed
env The N-terminal leucine-rich repeat fragment of Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 gp120-induced actin polymerization in T cells PubMed
env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify actin beta unit (ACTB), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-CXCR4 signaling triggers cofilin activation and actin reorganization, which are important for a post entry process leading to viral nuclear localization PubMed
env Syntenin-1 is recruited toward HIV-1 gp120/gp41-driven virus/cell and cell/cell contacts, associates with CD4, limits HIV-1-induced cell fusion and viral entry, and modulates gp120/gp41-triggered actin polymerization and PIP2 accumulation PubMed
env Inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) affects viral entry and gp120-induced actin reorganization PubMed
env Lck phosphorylates CD3zeta and the TCR-CD3 complex is recruited to a virological synapse (VS) when cells interact with gp120+ICAM-1 bilayers, leading to creation of an F-actin-depleted zone PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of actin beta in T-cell lines but downregulates the expression of actin beta in umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain fragment (amino acids 550-639) induces CD44 and beta-actin redistribution to the membrane lipid rafts on the human brain micro vascular endothelial cells PubMed
env Syntenin-1 is recruited toward HIV-1 gp120/gp41-driven virus/cell and cell/cell contacts, associates with CD4, limits HIV-1-induced cell fusion and viral entry, and modulates gp120/gp41-triggered actin polymerization and PIP2 accumulation PubMed
env The interaction of the long cytoplasmic tail of HIV-1 gp41 with the carboxy-terminal regulatory domain of p115-RhoGEF inhibits p115-mediated actin stress fiber formation and activation of serum response factor (SRF) PubMed
Gag-Pol gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify actin beta unit (ACTB), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 NA7 and SF2 Nef utilize their C-terminal aspartic acids to relocalize ACTA1 and ACTB (F-actin) PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef co-localizes with F-actin and reorganizes F-actin assembly in the cortical regions of human podocyte PubMed
nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify actin beta unit (ACTB), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits CXCL12 induced chemotaxis in Jurkat cells, monocytes, and PBMCs, which leads to marked downregulation of F-actin accumulation in cells PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef induces loss of F-actin assembly and inhibits retinoid receptor-mediated transcription PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef requires a PAK2 recruitment motif (F195/191I) for inhibition of actin remodeling and induction of cofilin hyperphosphorylation PubMed
nef Assays with phage-displayed Nef from HIV-1 NL4-3 have been used to identify a series of guanidine alkaloid-based inhibitors of Nef interactions with p53, actin, and p56(lck) PubMed
nef Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by treatment with CytD and LatB complements the infectivity defect of HIV-1 virions lacking Nef, suggesting Nef interacts with actin to enhance virion infectivity PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef induces rearrangement of actin microfilaments in dendritic cells, leading to uropod and ruffle formation, as well as the recruitment of T cells with a pronounced focal polarization of F-actin toward the DC/T cell contact sites PubMed
nef N-terminal myristoylated, but not unmyristoylated, HIV-1 Nef associates with actin in human B and T lymphocytes forming a high-molecular-mass complex of 150-300 kDa that influences the subcellular localization of Nef PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag HIV-1 Gag interacts with ACTB as demonstrated by proximity dependent biotinylation proteomics PubMed
gag Tec kinase chemical inhibitors diminish the recruitment of ITK to the plasma membrane perturbing HIV-1 Gag-ITK co-localization, disrupting F-actin polymerization, and inhibiting HIV-1 release and replication PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag, ITK, and F-actin are located in overlapping and discrete regions of T cell-T cell contact sites PubMed
gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify actin beta unit (ACTB), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
gag Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag assembly and budding occur through an actin-driven mechanism PubMed
gag Mature HIV-1 Nucleocapsid, as well as the nucleocapsid domain of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, binds filamentous actin resulting in incorporation of actin into virus particles and enhancement of cell motility PubMed
Rev rev Rev plays an important role in the compartmentation of translation by directing RRE-containing mRNAs to the beta-actin to form the perinuclear clusters at which the synthesis of viral structural proteins begins PubMed
rev during Rev-mediated nuclear export of HIV-1 mRNA, actin binds to eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A), a protein that interacts directly with Rev and facilitates the nuclear export process PubMed
rev beta actin is involved in the Rev-dependent nuclear export of unspliced and incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNA PubMed
Tat tat Treatment with cannabinoids inhibits HIV-1 Tat-enhanced attachment of U937 cells to collagen IV, laminin, or ECM1 proteins, which is linked to the cannabinoid receptor type 2 and the modulation of beta1-integrin and actin distribution PubMed
tat Treatment of primary hippocampal neurons with HIV-1 Tat produces a significant early reduction in F-actin labeled puncta. The cysteine rich domain (residues 22-37) of Tat is required for Tat-mediated reduction of F-actin labeled puncta PubMed
tat Uptake of the HIV-1 Tat protein is regulated by arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in epithelial cells PubMed
tat In Jurkat cells expressing HIV-1 Tat, decreased expression levels are found for basic cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, beta-tubulin, annexin, cofilin, gelsolin, and Rac/Rho-GDI complex PubMed
tat Upregulation of actin, heat shock protein 90 and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein, and downregulation of lactate dehydrogenase are identified in human astrocytes expressing Tat PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induces actin cytoskeletal rearrangements through p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and downstream activation of the endothelial NADPH oxidase, an effect that is lost by introduction of mutations into the Tat cysteine-rich or basic domains PubMed
Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies downregulation of actin beta (ACTB) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed
matrix gag The localization of the HIV-1 reverse transcription complex to actin microfilaments is mediated by the interaction of a reverse transcription complex component (HIV-1 Matrix) with actin, but not vimentin (intermediate filaments) or tubulin (microtubules) PubMed
nucleocapsid gag HIV-1 NC-like aggregates are associated with dsDNA synthesis by HIV-1 RT and appear to efficiently bind to F-actin filaments, a property that may be involved in targeting complexes to the nuclear envelope PubMed
gag Mature HIV-1 Nucleocapsid, as well as the nucleocapsid domain of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, binds filamentous actin resulting in incorporation of actin into virus particles and enhancement of cell motility PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol HIV-1 protease cleaves actin in vitro at amino acid residues 7-8, 66-67, 94-95, 105-106, 126-127, and 296-297 PubMed
gag-pol Actin, one of the most abundant proteins of the cell, is hydrolyzed by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease during acute infection of cultured human T lymphocytes PubMed
reverse transcriptase gag-pol The localization of the HIV-1 reverse transcription complex to actin microfilaments is mediated by the interaction of a reverse transcription complex component (HIV-1 Matrix) with actin, but not vimentin (intermediate filaments) or tubulin (microtubules) PubMed
gag-pol Eukaryotic beta-actin binds to either the large subunit (p66) of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase or to the HIV-1 Pol precursor polyprotein in vitro; this interaction is believed to be important for the secretion of HIV-1 virions PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
contributes_to RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding HDA PubMed 
contributes_to RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding HDA PubMed 
Tat protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
kinesin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
nitric-oxide synthase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
contributes_to nucleosomal DNA binding HDA PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
structural constituent of cytoskeleton TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
structural constituent of postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
structural constituent of postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
structural constituent of postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
structural constituent of postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
tau protein binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling HDA PubMed 
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
axonogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell junction assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cell motility IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell motility IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to cytochalasin B IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
ephrin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
membrane organization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of protein binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
platelet aggregation HMP PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression, epigenetic TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of norepinephrine uptake TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein deubiquitination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of norepinephrine uptake IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
regulation of norepinephrine uptake ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of transmembrane transporter activity IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
regulation of transmembrane transporter activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
retina homeostasis HEP PubMed 
substantia nigra development HEP PubMed 
synaptic vesicle endocytosis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
actin cytoskeleton IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
actin filament IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
axon IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
blood microparticle HDA PubMed 
calyx of Held IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cortical cytoskeleton IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoskeleton IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoskeleton ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cytoskeleton TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
dense body ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular space HDA PubMed 
focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
glutamatergic synapse EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
glutamatergic synapse IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
glutamatergic synapse IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
membrane HDA PubMed 
membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear chromatin HDA PubMed 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
presynapse TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein-containing complex HDA PubMed 
protein-containing complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
ribonucleoprotein complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
synapse IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vesicle HDA PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
actin, cytoplasmic 1
Names
I(2)-actin
PS1TP5-binding protein 1
beta cytoskeletal actin

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007992.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..8454
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_132

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001101.5NP_001092.1  actin, cytoplasmic 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001092.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK130157, BC009636
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS5341.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P60709
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q1KLZ0
    Related
    ENSP00000494750.1, ENST00000646664.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PTZ00281
    Location:1375
    PTZ00281; actin; Provisional

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    5527148..5530601 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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