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RALGDS ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5900, updated on 9-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
RALGDSprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulatorprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9842
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000160271 MIM:601619
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
VALIDATED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
RGF; RGDS; RalGEF
Summary
Guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulators (GDSs, or exchange factors), such as RALGDS, are effectors of Ras-related GTPases (see MIM 190020) that participate in signaling for a variety of cellular processes.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in skin (RPKM 22.8), gall bladder (RPKM 22.0) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See RALGDS in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
9q34.13-q34.2
Exon count:
21
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 9 NC_000009.12 (133097720..133149220, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (135973107..136024607, complement)

Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene carboxyl ester lipase Neighboring gene carboxyl ester lipase pseudogene Neighboring gene globoside alpha-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (FORS blood group) Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928193

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
  • Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
  • Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystemColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in ...
  • Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystemColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in ...
  • EGF/EGFR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    EGF/EGFR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemEpidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also known as ErbB1/HER1 is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases which also includes ErbB2 (Neu, HER2), ErbB3 (HER3) and ErbB4 (HER4). Sev...
  • ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB1 downstream signaling
  • Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHuman thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary lobe, which plays an important physiological role in regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-th...
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
  • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
  • p38MAPK events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p38MAPK events, organism-specific biosystemNGF induces sustained activation of p38, a member of the MAPK family (Morooka T, Nishida E, 1998). Both p38 and the ERKs appear to be involved in neurite outgrowth and differentiation caused by NGF i...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Potential readthrough

Included gene: GBGT1

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ20922

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTPase regulator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
GTPase regulator activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
Ras protein signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of catalytic activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
brush border IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator
Names
ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001042368.2NP_001035827.1  ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001035827.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region and represents use of an alternate promoter, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF027169, BC033198, BC059362, HY002335
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS43897.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q12967
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q8N4Y1
    Related
    ENSP00000376867.3, ENST00000393160.7
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd00153
    Location:743828
    RalGDS_RA; Ubiquitin domain of RalGDS-like factor (RLF) and related proteins
    smart00229
    Location:57193
    RasGEFN; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases; N-terminal motif
    cd00155
    Location:327589
    RasGEF; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like small GTPases. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily function as molecular switches in fundamental events such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular trafficking. ...
  2. NM_001271774.1NP_001258703.1  ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator isoform 3

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region and represents use of an alternate promoter, compared to variant 1. This variant also uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 5' coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) is shorter and has a distinct N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF295773, AK301470, AL162417, BC033198, BC059362, DC339956
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS65174.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q12967
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q8N4Y1
    Related
    ENSP00000361132.3, ENST00000372062.8
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd00153
    Location:769854
    RalGDS_RA; Ubiquitin domain of RalGDS-like factor (RLF) and related proteins
    smart00229
    Location:95219
    RasGEFN; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases; N-terminal motif
    cd00155
    Location:353615
    RasGEF; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like small GTPases. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily function as molecular switches in fundamental events such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular trafficking. ...
  3. NM_001271775.1NP_001258704.1  ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator isoform 4

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region and represents use of an alternate promoter, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK127524, AL162417, BC033198, BC059362
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS65173.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q12967
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q8N4Y1
    Related
    ENSP00000376864.3, ENST00000393157.8
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd00153
    Location:797882
    RalGDS_RA; Ubiquitin domain of RalGDS-like factor (RLF) and related proteins
    smart00229
    Location:111247
    RasGEFN; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases; N-terminal motif
    cd00155
    Location:381643
    RasGEF; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like small GTPases. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily function as molecular switches in fundamental events such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular trafficking. ...
  4. NM_001271776.1NP_001258705.1  ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator isoform 5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001258705.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 5' coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (5) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF295773, BC033198, BC059362, DR003030
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS65172.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q12967
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q8N4Y1
    Related
    ENSP00000361117.3, ENST00000372047.7
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd00153
    Location:786871
    RalGDS_RA; Ubiquitin domain of RalGDS-like factor (RLF) and related proteins
    smart00229
    Location:112236
    RasGEFN; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases; N-terminal motif
    cd00155
    Location:370632
    RasGEF; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like small GTPases. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily function as molecular switches in fundamental events such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular trafficking. ...
  5. NM_006266.4NP_006257.1  ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006257.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AF295773, BC033198, BC059362, DB480866, DR003030
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6959.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q12967
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q8N4Y1
    Related
    ENSP00000361120.3, ENST00000372050.7
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd00153
    Location:798883
    RalGDS_RA; Ubiquitin domain of RalGDS-like factor (RLF) and related proteins
    smart00229
    Location:112248
    RasGEFN; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases; N-terminal motif
    cd00155
    Location:382644
    RasGEF; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like small GTPases. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily function as molecular switches in fundamental events such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular trafficking. ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000009.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    133097720..133149220 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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