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PTGS2 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5743, updated on 2-Mar-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
PTGS2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9605
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000073756 MIM:600262
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
COX2; COX-2; PHS-2; PGG/HS; PGHS-2; hCox-2; GRIPGHS
Summary
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
Expression
Biased expression in bone marrow (RPKM 59.3), urinary bladder (RPKM 41.1) and 11 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See PTGS2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1q31.1
Exon count:
10
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210226 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (186671791..186680423, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (186640923..186649555, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene PDC antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene phosducin Neighboring gene parkin coregulated like pseudogene Neighboring gene PTGS2 antisense NFKB1 complex-mediated expression regulator RNA Neighboring gene phospholipase A2 group IVA

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Genome-wide association scan identifies a prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 variant involved in risk of knee osteoarthritis.
GeneReviews: Not available

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in human B cells PubMed
env Overexpression of NF-kappaB inhibitory subunit, IkappaBalpha, completely abrogates gp120-induced COX-2 activity PubMed
env HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is able to induce COX-2 mRNA and protein in human neuroblastoma cell lines that express CXCR4 and CCR5 but not CD4; gp120 induces COX-2 promoter transcription through NF-kappaB and activating protein-1 (AP-1) sites PubMed
env HIV-1 clade B gp120 induces higher levels of expression of the neuropathogenic molecule cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated arachidonic acid by-products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) compared to clade C gp120 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 increases the intracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 by upregulating the activity and expression of the arachidonate-metabolizing enzymes prostaglandin H synthase and 5-lipoxygenase, respectively PubMed
env Preincubation of human astrocytoma cells with HIV-1 gp120 produces a significant increase of nitrite and PGE2 in cell supernatants; the effect of gp120 on both nitrite and PGE2 production is inhibited by antagonists of NO synthase or cyclooxygenase PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Exposure of TZM-bl-2 cells to HIV gp41 increases PTGS2 (COX-2) mRNA PubMed
env A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 upregulates the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2; prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) in peptide-treated PBMCs PubMed
Nef nef Coincubation of HIV-1 Nef and IFN-gamma downregulates COX-2 expression compared to untreated, Nef- or IFN-gamma-treated Caco-2 cells PubMed
Tat tat Transcription factors NFAT and AP-1 (c-Jun/c-Fos) are required for HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of COX-2 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis increase Leishmania growth in HIV-1-infected macrophages PubMed
Vpr vpr Treatment of human primary astrocytes with HIV-1 Vpr downregulates expression of eleven genes, BNIP3, CYGB, DUOX2, DUSP1, FOXM1, GAPDH, HPRT1, MT3, MTL5, PTGS2, and SCARA3 PubMed
matrix gag Exposure of TZM-bl-2 cells to HIV MA (p17) increases COX-2 mRNA PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
dioxygenase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
heme binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
peroxidase activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
NAD biosynthesis via nicotinamide riboside salvage pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular oxidant detoxification IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to hypoxia IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cyclooxygenase pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cyclooxygenase pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
inflammatory response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lipoxygenase pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
long-chain fatty acid biosynthetic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fever generation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of fibroblast growth factor production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of platelet-derived growth factor production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
prostaglandin biosynthetic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of blood pressure ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of inflammatory response NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of neuroinflammatory response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
response to oxidative stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
neuron projection IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear inner membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear outer membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Names
PGH synthase 2
PHS II
cyclooxygenase 2
cyclooxygenase 2b
prostaglandin H2 synthase 2
prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
NP_000954.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_028206.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5005..13637
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000963.4NP_000954.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000954.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL033533, BC013734, BM978796, DA277667, KF455116
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1371.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P35354
    Related
    ENSP00000356438.5, ENST00000367468.10
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd09816
    Location:75562
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    cd00054
    Location:1954
    EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210226

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    186671791..186680423 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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