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PLAT plasminogen activator, tissue type [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5327, updated on 12-Aug-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
PLATprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
plasminogen activator, tissue typeprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9051
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000104368 MIM:173370; Vega:OTTHUMG00000164072
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TPA; T-PA
Summary
This gene encodes tissue-type plasminogen activator, a secreted serine protease that converts the proenzyme plasminogen to plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed by plasmin or trypsin to generate heavy and light chains. These chains associate via disulfide linkages to form the heterodimeric enzyme. This enzyme plays a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling. Increased enzymatic activity causes hyperfibrinolysis, which manifests as excessive bleeding, while decreased activity leads to hypofibrinolysis, which can result in thrombosis or embolism. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Expression
Broad expression in urinary bladder (RPKM 61.1), placenta (RPKM 41.3) and 18 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PLAT in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
8p11.21
Exon count:
14
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 8 NC_000008.11 (42174718..42207724, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 8 NC_000008.10 (42032236..42065242, complement)

Chromosome 8 - NC_000008.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986939 Neighboring gene adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929897 Neighboring gene inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379395

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Thrombophilia, familial, due to decreased release of tissue plasminogen activator
MedGen: C2676721 OMIM: 612348 GeneReviews: Not available
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NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association study for circulating tissue plasminogen activator levels and functional follow-up implicates endothelial STXBP5 and STX2.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Pathways from BioSystems

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • DKFZp686I03148

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
phosphoprotein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
serine-type endopeptidase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
serine-type endopeptidase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
signaling receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
blood coagulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular protein modification process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
fibrinolysis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of proteolysis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasminogen activation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
plasminogen activation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
proteolysis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
proteolysis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
smooth muscle cell migration IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
smooth muscle cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
trans-synaptic signaling by BDNF, modulating synaptic transmission IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apical part of cell IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NOT collagen-containing extracellular matrix IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
glutamatergic synapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
secretory granule IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
tissue-type plasminogen activator
Names
alteplase
plasminogen/activator kringle
reteplase
t-plasminogen activator
NP_000921.1
NP_001306118.1
NP_127509.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_023264.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..37959
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_570

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000930.4NP_000921.1  tissue-type plasminogen activator isoform 1 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000921.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC083973, BC013968, DA031108, DC424502
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6126.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P00750
    Related
    ENSP00000220809.4, OTTHUMP00000225784, ENST00000220809.8, OTTHUMT00000377100
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00058
    Location:4183
    FN1; Fibronectin type 1 domain
    cd00108
    Location:125209
    KR; Kringle domain; Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators, such as peptides, other proteins, membranes, or phospholipids. They are autonomous structural domains, found in a varying number of copies, in blood clotting and ...
    cd00190
    Location:313559
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...
    pfam00051
    Location:215296
    Kringle; Kringle domain
  2. NM_001319189.1NP_001306118.1  tissue-type plasminogen activator isoform 4 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks two alternate in-frame exons in the 5' coding region compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter than isoform 1. This isoform (4) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC083973, AK297738, BC002795, DA031108, DC424502
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS83291.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P00750
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DN26
    Related
    ENSP00000429401.1, OTTHUMP00000225788, ENST00000524009.5, OTTHUMT00000377104
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00058
    Location:4183
    FN1; Fibronectin type 1 domain
    cd00190
    Location:224470
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...
    pfam00051
    Location:126207
    Kringle; Kringle domain
  3. NM_033011.3NP_127509.1  tissue-type plasminogen activator isoform 3 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_127509.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the 5' coding region compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) is shorter than isoform 1. This isoform (3) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC083973, BC002795, DA031108, DC424502
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6127.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P00750
    Related
    ENSP00000270188.6, OTTHUMP00000225785, ENST00000352041.7, OTTHUMT00000377101
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00020
    Location:264510
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease
    cd00108
    Location:79163
    KR; Kringle domain; Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators, such as peptides, other proteins, membranes, or phospholipids. They are autonomous structural domains, found in a varying number of copies, in blood clotting and ...
    cd00190
    Location:267513
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...
    pfam00051
    Location:169250
    Kringle; Kringle domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000008.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    42174718..42207724 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_000931.2: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_000931.2: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate.
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