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GLRX2 glutaredoxin 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 51022, updated on 8-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
GLRX2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glutaredoxin 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:16065
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000023572 MIM:606820
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GRX2; CGI-133
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glutaredoxin family of proteins, which maintain cellular thiol homeostasis. These proteins are thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that use a glutathione-binding site and one or two active cysteines in their active site. This gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms, one of which is ubiquitously expressed and localizes to mitochondria, where it functions in mitochondrial redox homeostasis and is important for the protection against and recovery from oxidative stress. Other isoforms, which have more restrictive expression patterns, show cytosolic and nuclear localization, and are thought to function in cellular differentiation and transformation, possibly with a role in tumor progression. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Expression
Broad expression in testis (RPKM 15.8), prostate (RPKM 7.2) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GLRX2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1q31.2
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 1 NC_000001.11 (193096465..193106535, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (193065595..193075659, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L5 Neighboring gene small Cajal body-specific RNA 18B Neighboring gene Ro60, Y RNA binding protein Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929160 Neighboring gene cell division cycle 73 Neighboring gene microRNA 1278

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
retropepsin gag-pol Treatment of diglutathionylated HIV-1 protease (positions 67 and 95) with thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) restores protease activity and generates an enzyme preparation that has 3- to 5-fold greater specific activity relative to the fully reduced form PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
electron transfer activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein disulfide isomerase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA protection NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
aging IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apoptotic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell differentiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell redox homeostasis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to superoxide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
electron transport chain IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
glutathione metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to hydrogen peroxide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to organic substance IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to redox state TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to temperature stimulus NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
dendrite IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
mitochondrial matrix IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitochondrion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neuronal cell body IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
glutaredoxin 2
Names
bA101E13.1 (GRX2 glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) 2)
glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) 2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029745.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..14650
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001243399.1NP_001230328.1  glutaredoxin 2 isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230328.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and uses a downstream in-frame start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3, also known as Grx2c) is shorter at the N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA056513, AA887118, BQ432881
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NS18
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd03419
    Location:28109
    GRX_GRXh_1_2_like; Glutaredoxin (GRX) family, GRX human class 1 and 2 (h_1_2)-like subfamily; composed of proteins similar to human GRXs, approximately 10 kDa in size, and proteins containing a GRX or GRX-like domain. GRX is a glutathione (GSH) dependent reductase, ...
  2. NM_001319291.1NP_001306220.1  glutaredoxin 2 isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and uses a downstream in-frame start codon, compared to variant 1. Variants 3 and 4 encode the same isoform (3, also known as Grx2c), which is shorter at the N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC028113, BG182176, BM887926
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NS18
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd03419
    Location:28109
    GRX_GRXh_1_2_like; Glutaredoxin (GRX) family, GRX human class 1 and 2 (h_1_2)-like subfamily; composed of proteins similar to human GRXs, approximately 10 kDa in size, and proteins containing a GRX or GRX-like domain. GRX is a glutathione (GSH) dependent reductase, ...
  3. NM_016066.4NP_057150.2  glutaredoxin 2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_057150.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1, also known as Grx2b).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA056513, AF290514
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1380.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NS18
    Related
    ENSP00000356410.3, ENST00000367440.3
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd03419
    Location:69150
    GRX_GRXh_1_2_like; Glutaredoxin (GRX) family, GRX human class 1 and 2 (h_1_2)-like subfamily; composed of proteins similar to human GRXs, approximately 10 kDa in size, and proteins containing a GRX or GRX-like domain. GRX is a glutathione (GSH) dependent reductase, ...
  4. NM_197962.2NP_932066.1  glutaredoxin 2 isoform 2 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_932066.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate 5' exon and thus differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2, also known as Grx2a or mitochondrial Grx2) has a distinct N-terminus and is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA056513, AY038988, CN362908
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1381.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NS18
    Related
    ENSP00000356409.3, ENST00000367439.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd03419
    Location:68149
    GRX_GRXh_1_2_like; Glutaredoxin (GRX) family, GRX human class 1 and 2 (h_1_2)-like subfamily; composed of proteins similar to human GRXs, approximately 10 kDa in size, and proteins containing a GRX or GRX-like domain. GRX is a glutathione (GSH) dependent reductase, ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    193096465..193106535 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017001397.1XP_016856886.1  glutaredoxin 2 isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NS18
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd03419
    Location:28109
    GRX_GRXh_1_2_like; Glutaredoxin (GRX) family, GRX human class 1 and 2 (h_1_2)-like subfamily; composed of proteins similar to human GRXs, approximately 10 kDa in size, and proteins containing a GRX or GRX-like domain. GRX is a glutathione (GSH) dependent reductase, ...
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