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MT2A metallothionein 2A [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4502, updated on 9-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
MT2Aprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
metallothionein 2Aprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:7406
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000125148 MIM:156360
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MT2; MT-2; MT-II
Summary
This gene is a member of the metallothionein family of genes. Proteins encoded by this gene family are low in molecular weight, are cysteine-rich, lack aromatic residues, and bind divalent heavy metal ions, altering the intracellular concentration of heavy metals in the cell. These proteins act as anti-oxidants, protect against hydroxyl free radicals, are important in homeostatic control of metal in the cell, and play a role in detoxification of heavy metals. The encoded protein interacts with the protein encoded by the homeobox containing 1 gene in some cell types, controlling intracellular zinc levels, affecting apoptotic and autophagy pathways. Some polymorphisms in this gene are associated with an increased risk of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2017]
Expression
Broad expression in adrenal (RPKM 718.8), liver (RPKM 608.8) and 20 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See MT2A in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
16q13
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 16 NC_000016.10 (56608533..56609497)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 16 NC_000016.9 (56642478..56643409)

Chromosome 16 - NC_000016.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene metallothionein 4 Neighboring gene metallothionein 3 Neighboring gene metallothionein 1L, pseudogene Neighboring gene metallothionein 1E

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) by siRNA inhibits the early stages of HIV-1 replication in 293T cells infected with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat Microarray analysis indicates HIV-1 Tat upregulates the interferon-responsive gene expression of many proteins, including Metallothionein, in immature dendritic cells, an effect that likely facilitates the expansion of HIV-1 infection PubMed
capsid gag The interaction of HIV-1 CA with human cellular metallothionein 2A protein (MT2A) is identified by yeast two-hybrid screen PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Copper homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Copper homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemCopper is a redox-active transition metal and an essential trace element for life. It is a catalytic cofactor for numerous enzymes involved in critical biological processes (eg. detoxyfication by oxy...
  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Interferon Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interferon Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterferons (IFNs) are cytokines that play a central role in initiating immune responses, especially antiviral and antitumor effects. There are three types of IFNs:Type I (IFN-alpha, -beta and others...
  • Interferon gamma signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interferon gamma signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) belongs to the type II interferon family and is secreted by activated immune cells-primarily T and NK cells, but also B-cells and APC. INFG exerts its effect on cells by ...
  • Lung fibrosis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Lung fibrosis, organism-specific biosystemLung fibrosis pathway linked to events (molecular initiating event, key events and associative events) in a putative Adverse Outcome Pathway for lung fibrosis.
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metallothioneins bind metals, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metallothioneins bind metals, organism-specific biosystemMetallothioneins are highly conserved, cysteine-rich proteins that bind metals via thiolate bonds (recent general reviews in Capdevila et al. 2012, Blindauer et al. 2014, reviews of mammalian metallo...
  • Mineral absorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Mineral absorption, organism-specific biosystemMinerals are one of the five fundamental groups of nutrients needed to sustain life. Of the minerals, calcium plays innumerable roles in our bodies, serving as a main component of bone as well as an ...
  • Mineral absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Mineral absorption, conserved biosystemMinerals are one of the five fundamental groups of nutrients needed to sustain life. Of the minerals, calcium plays innumerable roles in our bodies, serving as a main component of bone as well as an ...
  • Response to metal ions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Response to metal ions, organism-specific biosystemThough metals such as zinc, copper, and iron are required as cofactors for cellular enzymes they can also catalyze damaging metal substitution or unspecific redox reactions if they are not sequestere...
  • Zinc homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Zinc homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemZinc is a transition metal and catalytic cofactor involved in many biological processes such as proliferation, development and differentiation, regulation of DNA synthesis, genomic stability, cell ac...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
drug binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
metal ion binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cellular copper ion homeostasis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to cadmium ion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to copper ion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to drug IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to erythropoietin IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to interleukin-3 IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to zinc ion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to zinc ion IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular zinc ion homeostasis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
detoxification of copper ion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of growth ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
response to metal ion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
metallothionein-2
Names
metallothionein-II

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_005953.5NP_005944.1  metallothionein-2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005944.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC007034
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS10763.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P02795
    Related
    ENSP00000245185.5, ENST00000245185.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00131
    Location:161
    Metallothio; Metallothionein

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000016.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    56608533..56609497
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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