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LTF lactotransferrin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4057, updated on 4-Oct-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
LTFprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
lactotransferrinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:6720
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000012223 MIM:150210
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
LF; HLF2; GIG12; HEL110
Summary
This gene is a member of the transferrin family of genes and its protein product is found in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The protein is a major iron-binding protein in milk and body secretions with an antimicrobial activity, making it an important component of the non-specific immune system. The protein demonstrates a broad spectrum of properties, including regulation of iron homeostasis, host defense against a broad range of microbial infections, anti-inflammatory activity, regulation of cellular growth and differentiation and protection against cancer development and metastasis. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activity has been found for this protein and its peptides. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Expression
Biased expression in bone marrow (RPKM 1214.2), salivary gland (RPKM 176.0) and 2 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See LTF in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
3p21.31
Exon count:
22
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200815 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 3 NC_000003.12 (46435645..46485234, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (46477496..46506598, complement)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2009 Neighboring gene C-C motif chemokine receptor like 2 Neighboring gene receptor transporter protein 3 Neighboring gene leucine rich repeat containing 2 Neighboring gene LRRC2 antisense RNA 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Genome-wide association study implicates PARD3B-based AIDS restriction.
GeneReviews: Not available
Genome-Wide Association Study of CSF Levels of 59 Alzheimer's Disease Candidate Proteins: Significant Associations with Proteins Involved in Amyloid Processing and Inflammation.
GeneReviews: Not available

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 is inhibited by TNC (tenascin C), MUC1, and LTF (lactoferrin) as shown through neutralization assays in TZM-bl cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Native lactoferrin (LF) and acylated LF from milk strongly bind to the V3 domain of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, resulting in inhibition of the virus-cell fusion and entry of the virus in CD4+ cells PubMed
reverse transcriptase gag-pol A peptide derived from human lactoferricin inhibits HIV-1 RT activity in a dose-dependent manner PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
heparin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
iron ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
serine-type endopeptidase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
antibacterial humoral response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
antibacterial humoral response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
antifungal humoral response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
antimicrobial humoral response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
bone morphogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
defense response to Gram-negative bacterium IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
humoral immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
innate immune response in mucosa IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
iron assimilation by chelation and transport TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
iron ion transport IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
killing of cells of other organism IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
killing of cells of other organism IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
membrane disruption in other organism IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation by host of viral process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of ATPase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of osteoclast development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of single-species biofilm formation in or on host organism IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 11 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of viral genome replication IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of viral process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
ossification IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of bone mineralization involved in bone maturation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of chondrocyte proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of osteoblast proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
proteolysis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cytokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
retina homeostasis HEP PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
early endosome IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space HDA PubMed 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus HDA PubMed 
phagocytic vesicle lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein-containing complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
recycling endosome IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
secretory granule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
specific granule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
specific granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
tertiary granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
lactotransferrin
Names
epididymis luminal protein 110
growth-inhibiting protein 12
kaliocin-1
lactoferricin
lactoferroxin
neutrophil lactoferrin
talalactoferrin
NP_001186078.1
NP_001308050.1
NP_001308051.1
NP_002334.2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_023257.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    25330..54590
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001199149.2NP_001186078.1  lactotransferrin isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001186078.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2, also known as delta LF) represents use of an alternate promoter and initiates translation at a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC098613, AK298035, BC015822
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS56251.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P02788
    Related
    ENSP00000405719.2, ENST00000426532.6
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00094
    Location:320651
    TR_FER; Transferrin
    cd13617
    Location:317650
    PBP2_transferrin_C; The C-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
    cd13618
    Location:1307
    PBP2_transferrin_N; The N-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
    pfam00405
    Location:1308
    Transferrin; Transferrin
  2. NM_001321121.2NP_001308050.1  lactotransferrin isoform 3 preproprotein

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC098613, AY360320, BP342557, EU794669, X52941
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS82763.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P02788
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    E7ER44, Q2TUW9, V9HWI4
    Related
    ENSP00000405546.1, ENST00000417439.5
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00094
    Location:364693
    TR_FER; Transferrin
    cd13617
    Location:361692
    PBP2_transferrin_C; The C-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
    cd13618
    Location:24351
    PBP2_transferrin_N; The N-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
    pfam00405
    Location:25352
    Transferrin; Transferrin
  3. NM_001321122.2NP_001308051.1  lactotransferrin isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' exon structure and initiates translation at an alternate start codon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) has a distinct, shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC098613, AK093852, EU794669, X52941
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P02788
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KSL2, V9HWI4
    Related
    ENSP00000397427.1, ENST00000443496.5
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00094
    Location:351682
    TR_FER; Transferrin
    cd13617
    Location:348681
    PBP2_transferrin_C; The C-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
    cd13618
    Location:11338
    PBP2_transferrin_N; The N-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
    pfam00405
    Location:12339
    Transferrin; Transferrin
  4. NM_002343.6NP_002334.2  lactotransferrin isoform 1 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002334.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC098613, BP342557, EU794669, X52941
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS33747.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P02788
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HWI4
    Related
    ENSP00000231751.4, ENST00000231751.9
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00094
    Location:364695
    TR_FER; Transferrin
    cd13617
    Location:361694
    PBP2_transferrin_C; The C-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
    cd13618
    Location:24351
    PBP2_transferrin_N; The N-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
    pfam00405
    Location:25352
    Transferrin; Transferrin

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20200815

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    46435645..46485234 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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