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IL18 interleukin 18 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3606, updated on 23-Nov-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
IL18provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
interleukin 18provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:5986
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000150782 MIM:600953
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
IGIF; IL-18; IL-1g; IL1F4
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family that is constitutively found as a precursor within the cytoplasm of a variety of cells including macrophages and keratinocytes. The inactive IL-18 precursor is processed to its active form by caspase-1, and is capable of stimulating interferon gamma production, and of regulating both T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 responses. This cytokine has been implicated in the injury of different organs, and in potentially fatal conditions characterized by a cytokine storm. In humans, IL-18 gene is located on chromosome 11. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2020]
Annotation information
Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is involved in cytokine storm inflammatory response.
Expression
Biased expression in skin (RPKM 65.5), esophagus (RPKM 50.9) and 12 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See IL18 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11q23.1
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20211119 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 11 NC_000011.10 (112143251..112164104, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (112013983..112034817, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene NKAP domain containing 1 Neighboring gene translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog B Neighboring gene succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107987164 Neighboring gene testis expressed 12

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs).
GeneReviews: Not available
Genome-wide association study identifies variants at the IL18-BCO2 locus associated with interleukin-18 levels.
GeneReviews: Not available
Novel gene variants predict serum levels of the cytokines IL-18 and IL-1ra in older adults.
GeneReviews: Not available

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Nef nef Both acute HIV-1 infection and incubation of the THP-1 monocytes with HIV-1 Nef downregulate IL-18 expression PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of interleukin 18 gene (IL18) in mammary epithelial cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC12320

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables cytokine activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables cytokine activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables cytokine activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables interleukin-18 receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in MAPK cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in T-helper 1 type immune response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in activation of protein kinase B activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cell population proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cellular response to organic cyclic compound IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cholesterol homeostasis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in interleukin-18-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in natural killer cell activation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of myoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in neutrophil activation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of NK T cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell cytokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of chemokine production TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of inflammatory response IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of interferon-gamma production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of interferon-gamma production TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-13 production TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-17 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of tissue remodeling IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in sleep ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
involved_in triglyceride homeostasis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in type 2 immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
interleukin-18
Names
IFN-gamma-inducing factor
IL-1 gamma
iboctadekin
interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor)
interleukin-1 gamma

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_028143.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5024..25858
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001243211.2NP_001230140.1  interleukin-18 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230140.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2, also known as Delta3pro-IL-18) lacks an in-frame coding exon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) is shorter and may be resistant to proteolytic activation, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AY266351, BC007461
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58180.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14116
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R3E0
    Related
    ENSP00000434561.1, ENST00000524595.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00340
    Location:74180
    IL1; Interleukin-1 / 18
  2. NM_001386420.1NP_001373349.1  interleukin-18 isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) represents the longest transcript, and differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Both variants 1 and 3 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AP002007, AP002884
    Related
    ENSP00000434161.1, ENST00000528832.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00340
    Location:73185
    IL1; Interleukin-1 / 18
  3. NM_001562.4NP_001553.1  interleukin-18 isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001553.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the predominant transcript, both variants 1 and 3 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AY266351, BC007461, D49950
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS44731.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14116
    Related
    ENSP00000280357.7, ENST00000280357.12
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00340
    Location:73185
    IL1; Interleukin-1 / 18

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20211119

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    112143251..112164104 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011542805.1XP_011541107.1  interleukin-18 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011541107.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14116
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R3E0
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00340
    Location:74180
    IL1; Interleukin-1 / 18
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