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H2AX H2A.X variant histone [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3014, updated on 3-May-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
H2AXprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
H2A.X variant histoneprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4739
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000188486 MIM:601772
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
H2A.X; H2A/X; H2AFX
Summary
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene encodes a replication-independent histone that is a member of the histone H2A family, and generates two transcripts through the use of the conserved stem-loop termination motif, and the polyA addition motif. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]
Orthologs

Genomic context

See H2AX in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11q23.3
Exon count:
1
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200228 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 11 NC_000011.10 (119093874..119095465, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (118964580..118966177, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene VPS11 core subunit of CORVET and HOPS complexes Neighboring gene hydroxymethylbilane synthase Neighboring gene dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107984397

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat peptides bind core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, and Tat protein recruits histone acetyltransferases to the HIV-1 LTR promoter leading to acetylation of histones H3 and H4, derepressing chromatin structure and increasing NFkappaB responsiveness PubMed
Vpr vpr Soluble HIV-1 Vpr induces a DNA damage response by forming H2AX- and 53BP1-containing DNA repair foci PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr expression in HeLa cells and human primary CD4+ lymphocytes induces phosphorylation of H2AFX and formation of nuclear foci containing H2AFX and BRCA1 PubMed
vpr Recruitment of a catalytically active CRL4A (VPRBP) complex is required to observe HIV-1 Vpr-interacting unknown cellular ubiquitinated proteins. Phosphorylation of H2AX requires Vpr-induced K48 residue polyubiquitination PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr binds DCAF1 and activates the DNA damage response in renal tubule epithelial cells, in which gamma H2AX-positive nuclei are abundant compared to the control PubMed
integrase gag-pol HIV-1 IN-mediated proviral DNA integration triggers cell death during HIV-1 infection. The mechanism of killing during viral integration involves activation of DNA-PK, which causes phosphorylation of p53 and histone gammaH2AX PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
DNA binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
damaged DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
histone binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage checkpoint IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to gamma radiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular senescence IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cerebral cortex development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
chromatin organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
chromatin silencing IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
meiotic cell cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleosome assembly NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of DNA repair NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to ionizing radiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
spermatogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
viral process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
XY body IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with chromosome, telomeric region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
condensed nuclear chromosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
male germ cell nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nuclear chromatin IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear speck IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus HDA PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
replication fork IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
site of DNA damage IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
site of double-strand break IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
histone H2AX
Names
H2A histone family member X
H2AX histone
histone H2A.x

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002105.3NP_002096.1  histone H2AX

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002096.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AP003391
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8410.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P16104
    Related
    ENSP00000434024.1, ENST00000530167.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PTZ00017
    Location:1131
    PTZ00017; histone H2A; Provisional

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    119093874..119095465 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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