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GLRX glutaredoxin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2745, updated on 7-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
GLRXprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glutaredoxinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4330
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000173221 MIM:600443
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GRX; GRX1
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the glutaredoxin family. The encoded protein is a cytoplasmic enzyme catalyzing the reversible reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides. This enzyme highly contributes to the antioxidant defense system. It is crucial for several signalling pathways by controlling the S-glutathionylation status of signalling mediators. It is involved in beta-amyloid toxicity and Alzheimer's disease. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Expression
Broad expression in kidney (RPKM 54.1), small intestine (RPKM 45.6) and 22 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GLRX in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
5q15
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 5 NC_000005.10 (95813849..95822873, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 5 NC_000005.9 (95149553..95158577, complement)

Chromosome 5 - NC_000005.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379090 Neighboring gene spermatogenesis associated 9 Neighboring gene Rho related BTB domain containing 3 Neighboring gene heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1 pseudogene 11 Neighboring gene gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724720

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Grx1 efficiently catalyzes gp120 and CD4 disulfide reduction in vitro. Purified anti-Grx1 antibodies are shown to inhibit the Grx1 activity in vitro and block HIV-1 replication in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of nucleotides, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of nucleotides, organism-specific biosystemNucleotides and their derivatives are used for short-term energy storage (ATP, GTP), for intra- and extra-cellular signaling (cAMP; adenosine), as enzyme cofactors (NAD, FAD), and for the synthesis o...
  • One Carbon Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    One Carbon Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemThis one-carbon metabolism pathway is centered around folate. Folate has two key carbon-carbon double bonds. Saturating one of them yields dihydrofolate (DHF) and adding an additional molecule of hyd...
  • Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates, organism-specific biosystemAn array of kinases catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of nucleotide monophosphates to form nucleotide diphosphates and triphosphates.Nucleoside monophosphate kinases catalyze the reversible pho...
  • ascorbate recycling (cytosolic), organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    ascorbate recycling (cytosolic), organism-specific biosystemGeneral Background : ASCORBATE (vitamin C, ascorbic acid) is a reducing agent and water-soluble antioxidant. It can be biosynthesized by plants (see : PWY-882), some bacteria (see : PWY-5521) and m...
  • ascorbate recycling (cytosolic), conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    ascorbate recycling (cytosolic), conserved biosystemGeneral Background |FRAME: ASCORBATE| (vitamin C, ascorbic acid) is a reducing agent and water-soluble antioxidant. It can be biosynthesized by plants (see |FRAME: PWY-882|), some bacteria (see |FR...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ43648, MGC117407

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
electron transfer activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
glutathione oxidoreductase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein N-terminus binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cell redox homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
electron transport chain IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of membrane potential IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein deglutathionylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
glutaredoxin-1
Names
TTase-1
thioltransferase
thioltransferase-1
NP_001112362.1
NP_001230587.1
NP_001230588.1
NP_002055.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029797.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..14025
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001118890.2NP_001112362.1  glutaredoxin-1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001112362.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 3' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1-4 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW128930, AW792936, BC010965, BP196332, D21238
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4078.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P35754
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RAM2
    Related
    ENSP00000237858.6, ENST00000237858.10
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    TIGR02180
    Location:1599
    GRX_euk; Glutaredoxin
  2. NM_001243658.1NP_001230587.1  glutaredoxin-1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230587.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 3' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1-4 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC008821, BG547098, BP196332
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4078.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P35754
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RAM2
    Related
    ENSP00000427353.1, ENST00000505427.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    TIGR02180
    Location:1599
    GRX_euk; Glutaredoxin
  3. NM_001243659.1NP_001230588.1  glutaredoxin-1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230588.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 3' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1-4 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA485178, AC008821, BP196332, BU949348
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4078.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P35754
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RAM2
    Related
    ENSP00000424636.2, ENST00000512469.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    TIGR02180
    Location:1599
    GRX_euk; Glutaredoxin
  4. NM_002064.2NP_002055.1  glutaredoxin-1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002055.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript. Variants 1-4 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW128930, AW792936, BC010965, BE738446, BP196332, BX106369, D21238
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4078.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P35754
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RAM2
    Related
    ENSP00000369314.4, ENST00000379979.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    TIGR02180
    Location:1599
    GRX_euk; Glutaredoxin

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000005.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    95813849..95822873 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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