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GH2 growth hormone 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2689, updated on 8-Oct-2017
Official Symbol
GH2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
growth hormone 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4262
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000136487 MIM:139240; Vega:OTTHUMG00000172284
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GHL; GHV; GH-V; GHB2; hGH-V
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the somatotropin/prolactin family of hormones which play an important role in growth control. The gene, along with four other related genes, is located at the growth hormone locus on chromosome 17 where they are interspersed in the same transcriptional orientation; an arrangement which is thought to have evolved by a series of gene duplications. The five genes share a remarkably high degree of sequence identity. Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones, leading to further diversity and potential for specialization. As in the case of its pituitary counterpart, growth hormone 1, the predominant isoform of this particular family member shows similar somatogenic activity, with reduced lactogenic activity. Mutations in this gene lead to placental growth hormone/lactogen deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Location:
17q23.3
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 17 NC_000017.11 (63880212..63881942, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (61957572..61960039, complement)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene testicular cell adhesion molecule 1, pseudogene Neighboring gene chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 Neighboring gene intercellular adhesion molecule 1-like Neighboring gene chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 1

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of growth hormone 2 (GH2) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat Overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) suppresses HIV-1 Tat-mediated inhibition of growth hormone secretion from cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat binding to phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphophate is required for inhibition of growth hormone secretion from cells PubMed
tat Growth hormone (GH) inhibits the induction of p53 expression in neurons by supernatants from HIV-1 Tat-transfected monocytoid cells, indicating GH may have a role in the treatment of HIV-induced neurodegeneration PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Growth hormone receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Growth hormone receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemGrowth hormone (Somatotropin or GH) is a key factor in determining lean body mass, stimulating the growth and metabolism of muscle, bone and cartilage cells, while reducing body fat. It has many othe...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Prolactin receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Prolactin receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a hormone secreted mainly by the anterior pituitary gland. It was originally identified by its ability to stimulate the development of the mammary gland and lactation, but is now k...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Potential readthrough

Included gene: CSH2

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
hormone activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
endosome lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Preferred Names
growth hormone variant
Names
growth hormone B2
placenta-specific growth hormone
placental-specific growth hormone

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002059.4NP_002050.1  growth hormone variant isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002050.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) utilizes all five exons generating the predominant 22-kDa isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AU139016, BC020760, CF528273
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11647.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01242
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A0M6L0J9
    Related
    ENSP00000409294.2, OTTHUMP00000248003, ENST00000423893.6, OTTHUMT00000417665
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10285
    Location:35215
    somatotropin_like; Somatotropin or growth hormone (GH), placental lactogen, and related pituitary gland hormones
  2. NM_022556.3NP_072050.1  growth hormone variant isoform 4 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_072050.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) utilizes an alternative splice acceptor site 45 nt into exon 3 to generate the 20-kDa isoform (4) which has an internal deletion relative to the predominant 22-kDa isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AF006060, AU139016, CF528273
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS45758.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01242
    Related
    ENSP00000410618.2, OTTHUMP00000248001, ENST00000449787.6, OTTHUMT00000417663
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10285
    Location:35200
    somatotropin_like; Somatotropin or growth hormone (GH), placental lactogen, and related pituitary gland hormones
  3. NM_022557.3NP_072051.1  growth hormone variant isoform 2 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_072051.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) utilizes intron D to generate the longest isoform (2), which diverges from all other GH isoforms in the carboxy terminus.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK312194, AU139016, CF528273, J03756
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11648.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01242
    Related
    ENSP00000333157.7, OTTHUMP00000248004, ENST00000332800.7, OTTHUMT00000417666
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl07831
    Location:35170
    growth_hormone_like; Somatotropin/prolactin hormone family
  4. NM_022558.3NP_072052.1  growth hormone variant isoform 3 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_072052.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) utilizes an alternative splice donor site in exon 4 causing a 4 nt deletion and a frameshift which generates an isoform (3) with a unique carboxy-terminus.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF006061, AU139016, CF528273
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS45757.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01242
    Related
    ENSP00000394122.2, OTTHUMP00000248002, ENST00000456543.6, OTTHUMT00000417664
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl07831
    Location:35185
    growth_hormone_like; Somatotropin/prolactin hormone family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Range
    63880212..63881942 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018928.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    62021912..62023642 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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