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GH2 growth hormone 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2689, updated on 8-Jul-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
GH2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
growth hormone 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4262
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000136487 MIM:139240
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GHL; GHV; GH-V; GHB2; hGH-V
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the somatotropin/prolactin family of hormones which play an important role in growth control. The gene, along with four other related genes, is located at the growth hormone locus on chromosome 17 where they are interspersed in the same transcriptional orientation; an arrangement which is thought to have evolved by a series of gene duplications. The five genes share a remarkably high degree of sequence identity. Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones, leading to further diversity and potential for specialization. As in the case of its pituitary counterpart, growth hormone 1, the predominant isoform of this particular family member shows similar somatogenic activity, with reduced lactogenic activity. Mutations in this gene lead to placental growth hormone/lactogen deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Restricted expression toward placenta (RPKM 103.3) See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See GH2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
17q23.3
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 17 NC_000017.11 (63880215..63881944, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (61957575..61959304, complement)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene testicular cell adhesion molecule 1, pseudogene Neighboring gene chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 Neighboring gene intercellular adhesion molecule 1-like Neighboring gene chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of growth hormone 2 (GH2) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat Overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) suppresses HIV-1 Tat-mediated inhibition of growth hormone secretion from cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat binding to phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphophate is required for inhibition of growth hormone secretion from cells PubMed
tat Growth hormone (GH) inhibits the induction of p53 expression in neurons by supernatants from HIV-1 Tat-transfected monocytoid cells, indicating GH may have a role in the treatment of HIV-induced neurodegeneration PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Potential readthrough

Included gene: CSH2

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables growth factor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables growth hormone receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in animal organ development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in growth hormone receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of growth IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to nutrient levels IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in endosome lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
growth hormone variant
Names
growth hormone B2
placenta-specific growth hormone
placental-specific growth hormone

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002059.5NP_002050.1  growth hormone variant isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002050.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) utilizes all five exons generating the predominant 22-kDa isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC040958, AU139016, BC020760, CF528273
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11647.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01242
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A0M6L0J9
    Related
    ENSP00000409294.2, ENST00000423893.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10285
    Location:35215
    somatotropin_like; Somatotropin or growth hormone (GH), placental lactogen, and related pituitary gland hormones
  2. NM_022556.4NP_072050.1  growth hormone variant isoform 4 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_072050.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) utilizes an alternative splice acceptor site 45 nt into exon 3 to generate the 20-kDa isoform (4) which has an internal deletion relative to the predominant 22-kDa isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC040958, AF006060, AU139016, CF528273
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS45758.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01242
    Related
    ENSP00000410618.2, ENST00000449787.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10285
    Location:35200
    somatotropin_like; Somatotropin or growth hormone (GH), placental lactogen, and related pituitary gland hormones
  3. NM_022557.4NP_072051.1  growth hormone variant isoform 2 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_072051.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) utilizes intron D to generate the longest isoform (2), which diverges from all other GH isoforms in the carboxy terminus.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC040958, AK312194, AU139016, CF528273, J03756
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11648.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01242
    Related
    ENSP00000333157.7, ENST00000332800.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl07831
    Location:35170
    growth_hormone_like; Somatotropin/prolactin hormone family
  4. NM_022558.4NP_072052.1  growth hormone variant isoform 3 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_072052.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) utilizes an alternative splice donor site in exon 4 causing a 4 nt deletion and a frameshift which generates an isoform (3) with a unique carboxy-terminus.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC040958, AF006061, AU139016
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS45757.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01242
    Related
    ENSP00000394122.2, ENST00000456543.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl07831
    Location:35185
    growth_hormone_like; Somatotropin/prolactin hormone family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    63880215..63881944 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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