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CSH2 chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1443, updated on 11-Sep-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
CSH2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:2441
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000213218 MIM:118820
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PL; CSB; CS-2; GHB1; hCS-B
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the somatotropin/prolactin family of hormones and plays an important role in growth control. The gene is located at the growth hormone locus on chromosome 17 along with four other related genes in the same transcriptional orientation; an arrangement which is thought to have evolved by a series of gene duplications. Although the five genes share a remarkably high degree of sequence identity, they are expressed selectively in different tissues. Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones. This particular family member is expressed mainly in the placenta and utilizes multiple transcription initiation sites. Expression of the identical mature proteins for chorionic somatomammotropin hormones 1 and 2 is upregulated during development, while the ratio of 1 to 2 increases by term. Structural and expression differences provide avenues for developmental regulation and tissue specificity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Restricted expression toward placenta (RPKM 5535.3) See more

Genomic context

See CSH2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
17q23.3
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 17 NC_000017.11 (63872012..63873729, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (61949372..61951089, complement)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 2 Neighboring gene testicular cell adhesion molecule 1, pseudogene Neighboring gene intercellular adhesion molecule 1-like Neighboring gene growth hormone 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Potential readthrough

Included gene: CSH1

Potential readthrough

Included gene: GH2

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
growth factor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
growth hormone receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
animal organ development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
growth hormone receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of growth IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to nutrient levels IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
endoplasmic reticulum IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2
Names
choriomammotropin
chorionic somatomammotropin B
growth hormone B1
lactogen
placental lactogen

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_020991.3NP_066271.1  chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_066271.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) utilizes all five exons, resulting in the longest, most abundant isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    J03071
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS42369.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P0DML3
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A0M6L0F6
    Related
    ENSP00000376623.2, ENST00000392886.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10285
    Location:35215
    somatotropin_like; Somatotropin or growth hormone (GH), placental lactogen, and related pituitary gland hormones
  2. NM_022644.3NP_072170.1  chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 isoform 2 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_072170.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains intron D and encodes an isoform (2) that diverges from all other CS isoforms in the carboxy-terminus due to a frameshift. Early truncation occurs relative to a similarly spliced variant of chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    EU421716
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11646.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6NIT4
    Related
    ENSP00000338816.5, ENST00000336844.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl07831
    Location:35167
    growth_hormone_like; Somatotropin/prolactin hormone family
  3. NM_022645.2NP_072171.1  chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 isoform 3 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_072171.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks exons 3 and 4, and encodes an isoform (3) that has an internal deletion relative to isoform 1, but retains the signal sequence, unlike the other exon skipping isoform (4).
    Source sequence(s)
    J03071
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS42368.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B1A4H9
    Related
    ENSP00000308396.10, ENST00000345366.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl07831
    Location:58120
    growth_hormone_like; Somatotropin/prolactin hormone family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    63872012..63873729 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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