U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Send to:

Choose Destination

CTSD cathepsin D [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1509, updated on 7-Apr-2024


Official Symbol
CTSDprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
cathepsin Dprovided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000117984 MIM:116840; AllianceGenome:HGNC:2529
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
This gene encodes a member of the A1 family of peptidases. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate multiple protein products. These products include the cathepsin D light and heavy chains, which heterodimerize to form the mature enzyme. This enzyme exhibits pepsin-like activity and plays a role in protein turnover and in the proteolytic activation of hormones and growth factors. Mutations in this gene play a causal role in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-10 and may be involved in the pathogenesis of several other diseases, including breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Ubiquitous expression in lung (RPKM 302.1), kidney (RPKM 273.0) and 25 other tissues See more
Try the new Gene table
Try the new Transcript table

Genomic context

See CTSD in Genome Data Viewer
Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 11 NC_000011.10 (1752755..1763927, complement)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 11 NC_060935.1 (1838305..1849587, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (1773985..1785157, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene keratin associated protein 5-6 Neighboring gene interferon induced transmembrane protein 10 Neighboring gene skeletal muscle cis-regulatory module in IFITM10 intron Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:1770125-1770880 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:1770881-1771636 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3057 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3058 Neighboring gene PRC2 and DDX5 associated lncRNA Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376517 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124902610 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L36a pseudogene 39

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Cathepsin D cleaves HIV-1 gp120 at positions L181-Y182 (V2 domain) and E274-V275 (C2 domain), which is important for antigen processing and presentation PubMed
env Cathepsin D may induce conformational modification of HIV-1 gp120, allowing direct interaction with the CXCR4 coreceptor and enhancing HIV-1 infectivity and entry into cells PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 Env co-localizes with cathepsin D in HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp160 is identified to have a physical interaction with cathepsin D (CTSD) in human HEK293 and/or Jurkat cell lines by using affinity tagging and purification mass spectrometry analyses PubMed
Nef nef The transfection of activated CD4(+) T lymphocytes with a Nef expression vector rapidly induces the permeabilization of lysosomes and the release of Cat-D PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat increases cellular levels of CTSD (Cathepsin D), which can be inhibited by caffeine PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat co-localizes with cathepsin D in neuronal cells PubMed
Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies upregulation of cathepsin D (CTSD) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information


Clone Names

  • MGC2311

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables aspartic-type endopeptidase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
enables aspartic-type peptidase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
enables cysteine-type endopeptidase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
enables peptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
enables peptidase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info

General protein information

Preferred Names
cathepsin D
ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 10
epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 130P
lysosomal aspartyl peptidase
lysosomal aspartyl protease

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

NEW Try the new Transcript table

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.


  1. NG_008655.1 RefSeqGene

    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001909.5NP_001900.1  cathepsin D preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001900.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC016320, BM762986
    Consensus CDS
    P07339, Q6IB57
    A0A1B0GWE8, V9HWI3
    ENSP00000236671.2, ENST00000236671.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    Cathepsin_D2; pepsin family of proteinases
    A1_Propeptide; A1 Propeptide

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    1752755..1763927 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0


  1. NC_060935.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    1838305..1849587 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)