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PAPOLA poly(A) polymerase alpha [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 10914, updated on 5-Nov-2017
Official Symbol
PAPOLAprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
poly(A) polymerase alphaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:14981
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000090060 MIM:605553; Vega:OTTHUMG00000171441
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PAP
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family. It is required for the addition of adenosine residues for the creation of the 3'-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in testis (RPKM 27.7), thyroid (RPKM 22.4) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
Location:
14q32.2
Exon count:
23
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 14 NC_000014.9 (96502376..96567116)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (96968713..97033453)

Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene adenylate kinase 7 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 10 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC730202 Neighboring gene RNA, 7SK small nuclear pseudogene 108 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370645

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat The poly(A) site in the HIV-1 5'-LTR is occluded in a Tat-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Tat in regulating this nucleotide signal PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr dephosphorylates poly(A) polymerase (PAP), presumably through inhibition of the p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase complex, leading to enhanced PAP activity PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • Cleavage of Growing Transcript in the Termination Region, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cleavage of Growing Transcript in the Termination Region, organism-specific biosystemThis section includes the cleavage of both polyadenylated and non-polyadenylated transcripts. In the former case polyadenylation has to precede transcript cleavage, while in the latter case there is ...
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • Processing of Capped Intron-Containing Pre-mRNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processing of Capped Intron-Containing Pre-mRNA, organism-specific biosystemCo-transcriptional pre-mRNA splicing is not obligatory. Pre-mRNA splicing begins co-transcriptionally and often continues post-transcriptionally. Human genes contain an average of nine introns per ge...
  • Processing of Capped Intronless Pre-mRNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processing of Capped Intronless Pre-mRNA, organism-specific biosystemCo-transcriptional pre-mRNA splicing is not obligatory. Pre-mRNA splicing begins co-transcriptionally and often continues post-transcriptionally. Human genes contain an average of nine introns per ge...
  • Processing of Intronless Pre-mRNAs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processing of Intronless Pre-mRNAs, organism-specific biosystemThe 3' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs are generated by posttranscriptional processing of an extended primary transcript. For almost all RNAs, 3' processing consists of two steps: The mRNA is first cleaved ...
  • RNA Polymerase II Transcription, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNA Polymerase II Transcription, organism-specific biosystem
    RNA Polymerase II Transcription
  • RNA Polymerase II Transcription Termination, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNA Polymerase II Transcription Termination, organism-specific biosystemThe detailed annotation of this section will be completed in the next release.
  • mRNA 3'-end processing, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    mRNA 3'-end processing, organism-specific biosystemThe 3' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs are generated by posttranscriptional processing of an extended primary transcript. For almost all RNAs, 3'-end processing consists of two steps: (i) the mRNA is first ...
  • mRNA Processing, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    mRNA Processing, organism-specific biosystemThis process describes the conversion of precursor messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA (mRNA). The pre-mRNA molecule undergoes three main modifications. These modifications are 5' capping, 3' po...
  • mRNA Splicing, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    mRNA Splicing, organism-specific biosystemThe process in which excision of introns from the primary transcript of messenger RNA (mRNA) is followed by ligation of the two exon termini exposed by removal of each intron, is called mRNA splicing...
  • mRNA Splicing - Major Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    mRNA Splicing - Major Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe splicing of pre-mRNA occurs within a large, very dynamic complex, designated the 'spliceosome'. The 50-60S spliceosomes are estimated to be 40-60 nm in diameter, and have molecular weights in the...
  • mRNA surveillance pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mRNA surveillance pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mRNA surveillance pathway is a quality control mechanism that detects and degrades abnormal mRNAs. These pathways include nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), nonstop mRNA decay (NSD), and no-go ...
  • mRNA surveillance pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mRNA surveillance pathway, conserved biosystemThe mRNA surveillance pathway is a quality control mechanism that detects and degrades abnormal mRNAs. These pathways include nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), nonstop mRNA decay (NSD), and no-go ...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC5378, FLJ33067

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
RNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
magnesium ion binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
manganese ion binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
RNA polyadenylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
mRNA 3'-end processing TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mRNA polyadenylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mRNA splicing, via spliceosome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of mRNA 3'-end processing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
termination of RNA polymerase II transcription TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
poly(A) polymerase alpha
Names
PAP-alpha
polynucleotide adenylyltransferase alpha
NP_001238935.1
NP_001238936.1
NP_001280556.1
NP_001280557.1
NP_001280561.1
NP_116021.2
XP_005267338.1
XP_005267339.1
XP_016876424.1
XP_016876425.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_030439.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..69741
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001252006.1NP_001238935.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001238935.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks multiple exons and its transcription extends past a splice site that is used in variant 1, resulting in a novel 3' coding region and 3' UTR compared to variant 1. It encodes isoform 2 which is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL163051, BX089817, BX248753, DB045100
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58334.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P51003
    Related
    ENSP00000450437.1, OTTHUMP00000246022, ENST00000557320.5, OTTHUMT00000413412
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam04928
    Location:21279
    PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
  2. NM_001252007.1NP_001238936.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001238936.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks multiple exons and its transcription extends past a splice site that is used in variant 1, resulting in a novel 3' coding region and 3' UTR compared to variant 1. It encodes isoform 3 which is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL163051, BX089817, BX161482, DB045100
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58335.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P51003
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A0C4DGK1
    Related
    ENSP00000450812.1, OTTHUMP00000246066, ENST00000557471.5, OTTHUMT00000413477
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl11966
    Location:21205
    NT_Pol-beta-like; Nucleotidyltransferase (NT) domain of DNA polymerase beta and similar proteins
  3. NM_001293627.1NP_001280556.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280556.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) has an alternate splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (4) lacks an internal aa, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC015150, BC036014, CD655865, DB483858
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P51003
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04926
    Location:366495
    PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
    pfam04928
    Location:21363
    PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
  4. NM_001293628.1NP_001280557.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280557.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) has an alternate 5' terminal exon, which results in a downstream AUG start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (5) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1. Both variants 5 and 6 encode the same isoform 5.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC036014, BX248301, CD655865
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P51003
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6J7
    Related
    ENSP00000450534.1, OTTHUMP00000246069, ENST00000555626.5, OTTHUMT00000413480
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cl11966
    Location:1113
    NT_Pol-beta-like; Nucleotidyltransferase (NT) domain of DNA polymerase beta and similar proteins
    cl26091
    Location:251396
    MotB_plug; Membrane MotB of proton-channel complex MotA/MotB
    cl27098
    Location:1317
    PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
  5. NM_001293632.1NP_001280561.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280561.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks two consecutive exons in the 5' region, which results in a downstream AUG start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (5) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1. Both variants 5 and 6 encode the same isoform 5.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK307659, BC036014, CD655865, DB483858
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P51003
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6J7
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cl11966
    Location:1113
    NT_Pol-beta-like; Nucleotidyltransferase (NT) domain of DNA polymerase beta and similar proteins
    cl26091
    Location:251396
    MotB_plug; Membrane MotB of proton-channel complex MotA/MotB
    cl27098
    Location:1317
    PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
  6. NM_032632.4NP_116021.2  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_116021.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA236200, BC036014, DB045100
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS9946.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P51003
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6M3
    Related
    ENSP00000216277.8, OTTHUMP00000246021, ENST00000216277.12, OTTHUMT00000413411
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00418
    Location:9567
    PTZ00418; Poly(A) polymerase; Provisional
    pfam04926
    Location:366495
    PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
    pfam04928
    Location:21363
    PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Range
    96502376..96567116
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005267281.1XP_005267338.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005267338.1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    G3XAH6
    Related
    ENSP00000376716.2, OTTHUMP00000246068, ENST00000392990.6, OTTHUMT00000413479
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00418
    Location:9567
    PTZ00418; Poly(A) polymerase; Provisional
    pfam04926
    Location:366495
    PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
    pfam04928
    Location:21363
    PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
  2. XM_017020935.1XP_016876424.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform X2

  3. XM_005267282.2XP_005267339.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform X3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005267339.1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00418
    Location:9567
    PTZ00418; Poly(A) polymerase; Provisional
    pfam04926
    Location:366495
    PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
    pfam04928
    Location:21363
    PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
  4. XM_017020936.1XP_016876425.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform X4

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018925.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    96907469..96972173
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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