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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 22Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet

Created: ; Last Update: August 11, 2015.

A. Entire Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet

B. Parts of Books on the Internet

C. Contributions to Books on the Internet

See also:

Chapter 2 Books

Chapter 11B Forthcoming Books

Chapter 15 Books and Other Individual Titles in Audiovisual Formats

Chapter 18 Books and Other Individual Titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet

The general format for a reference to an entire Internet book, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an entire Internet
book.

Examples of Citations to Entire Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet

A monograph, commonly called a book, is any work complete in one volume or in a finite number of volumes. Online books are often electronic versions of large printed texts, such as textbooks, manuals, or technical reports, but may also be smaller works such as a brochure, single-page fact sheet, or brief treatise. Size is not relevant to the definition.

Increasingly books are written directly for the Internet to enable hyperlinking, to include complex graphics, and to run multimedia such as film clips and sound. An Internet book may be static, that is fixed in time and unchanged since publication, or may be updated or otherwise revised over time. Some producers of Internet books permit or otherwise welcome comments or expert opinion from readers and incorporate these comments into the text. Major revisions may be announced as new editions, but more minor additions and changes such as those to add comments, to correct typographical errors, or to update hypertext links may not be noted.

Although Internet books differ radically in physical form from the usual print book, the basic rules for citing them do not differ markedly from what is required for print. There is still an author or organization with responsibility for the item, a title, a place of "publication", a publisher, a date of publication, and the extent of the item (i.e., number of pages or the equivalent). Anyone citing an Internet document should try to locate all of these elements. Simply adding a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), DOI, or other electronic address to a title is not sufficient. Internet sites disappear with great frequency, and users of a citation must be given some other identifying information if they are to locate books on them.

Some elements, however, are more difficult to locate when citing Internet books. For example, some poorly constructed sites do not contain dates, and authorship or publishing responsibility may be unclear or absent. It also may be difficult to discern the title from the collage of graphics presented. The person doing the citing can only work with the information provided.

Do not confuse the publisher with the organization that maintains the Web site for the publisher. If wording such as "this site is maintained by XYZ Corporation for ABC Organization" appears, ABC Organization is considered the publisher and XYZ Corporation the distributor. Publisher information is required in a citation; distributor information may be included as a note if desired.

Some elements require expansion for an Internet citation to provide useful information to the user. For example, the date of publication is required in any citation, but many Internet items are updated or otherwise modified several times after the date of publication. The latest date of update/revision should therefore be included along with the date cited, i.e., the date the person doing the citing saw the item on the Internet. This is necessary in the volatile Internet environment, where changes can be easily made and an item seen one day may not be the same in crucial ways when viewed the next day. Producing a print or other copy for future reference is strongly recommended.

An Internet book is cited the same way that a print book is cited, with these exceptions:

  • Use the word "Internet" in square brackets as the Type of Medium after the title.
  • Include any date of update/revision and a date of citation in square brackets following the date of publication. Use the dates for the individual book being cited, not the dates of the Internet site as a whole unless no dates can be found for the individual item.
  • When the extent (pagination) of the book is not provided, as often occurs, calculate it using the best means possible, e.g., in terms of print pages, screens, paragraphs, or bytes. If a book is not linear, and has many hyperlinks, it will be impossible to determine the length.
  • Provide the URL or other electronic address of the item.

It is important to cite the version you saw. If you viewed a book on the Internet, do not cite it as if it were a print one. However, it may be useful to begin a citation to a book found on the Internet by first locating all of the information needed to cite it as if it were a print document, then add the Internet-specific items. For example:

Print information

Lefebvre P. Molecular and genetic maps of the nuclear genome. Durham (NC): Duke University, Department of Biology; 2002.

Added Internet information (in bold)

Lefebvre P. Molecular and genetic maps of the nuclear genome [Internet]. Durham (NC): Duke University, Department of Biology; 2002 [modified 2002 Dec 11; cited 2003 Sep 5]. Available from: http://www.biology.duke.edu/chlamy_genome/nuclear_maps.html

If a book on the Internet does not have a formal title page, look to the opening screens, the bottom or closing screens, links from the sidebar, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser) to locate citation information.

While all monographs have certain elements in common for citation purposes, such as author, title, publisher information, and date, specific types of monographs have additional elements. For example, a citation to a technical report should include report and contract numbers. Examples of citation to reports and other types of monographs are included in this chapter, but see also the specific chapters about these types for more detail. Refer also to Chapter 2 Books for more examples of book citations.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Extent (Pagination) (O) | Series (O) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • List names in the order they appear on the title page or opening screens
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and Other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Determining the author if there is no standard title page.

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Non-English words for editor.

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Organizations as author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Entire Books on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the parentheses, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Examples for Author Affiliation

Title for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of a book as it appears on the title page or opening screens, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Determining the title if there is no standard title page.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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No title can be found.

Content Type for Entire Books on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • A content type describes the format of the Internet item being cited, such as a monograph, dissertation, or bibliography
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "monograph on the", "dissertation on the", etc.
  • End content type with space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Type of Medium for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the word Internet in square brackets following the title (and content type, if present)
  • End with a period placed outside the closing bracket
  • Add location information (URL, etc) according to the instructions under Availability below
  • See Chapter 18 for books on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Edition for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the Type of Medium when a book is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions.

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

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Both an edition and a version.

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First editions.

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Entire Books on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, and illustrators
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the Type of Medium and any edition statement
  • Use the same rules for the format of names presented in Author/Editor above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author.

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Secondary author performing more than one role.

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

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Organization as editor.

Place of Publication for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the book was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Locating the place of publication if there is no standard title page.

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Non-US cities.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • A publisher is defined as the individual or organization issuing the book
  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears on the title page or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley"
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Determining the publisher if there is no standard title page.

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English names for publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple publishers.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication if there is no standard title page.

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication or copyright can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Date of Update/Revision for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Books may be updated or revised between editions or versions
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated and modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Both a date of update and a date of revision.

Examples for Date of Update/Revision

Date of Citation for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the book was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation.

Extent (Pagination) for Entire Books on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Extent (Pagination)

For books with standard page numbers such as those in PDF
  • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the book appears
  • Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text
  • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p
  • End extent information with a period
For books without page numbers
  • Give extent as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes, whichever is most practical; precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 15 screens]
  • If the book is printed out, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 10 p.]
  • End extent information with a period

Specific Rules for Extent (Pagination)

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Roman numerals used as page numbers.

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Books without page numbers.

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Books that are videocasts or podcasts.

Series for Entire Books on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Series

  • Begin with the name of the series
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns
  • Follow the name with any numbers provided. For example, vol. 3 for a volume or no. 12 for an issue number.
  • Separate the title and the number by a semicolon and a space
  • Place series information in parentheses
  • End series information with a period, placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Series

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Series editor's name provided.

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Multiple series.

Availability for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs.

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URLs not directly addressable.

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Multiple URLs.

Examples for Availability

Language for Entire Books on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Books appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Entire Books on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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DOIs.

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System requirements.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Entire Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet

1. Standard citation to a book on the Internet

Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000 [revised 2001 Oct 1; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.rad.washington.edu/mskbook/index.html

Collins SR, Kriss JL, Davis K, Doty MM, Holmgren AL. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and financial well-being of American families [Internet]. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep [cited 2006 Nov 2]. 34 p. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Collins_squeezedrisinghltcarecosts_953.pdf

Fact sheet: AIDS information resources [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2003 May 2 [updated 2005 Jul 14; cited 2006 Nov 15]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/aidsinfs.html

with optional content type

Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [monograph on the Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000 [revised 2001 Oct 1; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.rad.washington.edu/mskbook/index.html

Collins SR, Kriss JL, Davis K, Doty MM, Holmgren AL. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and financial well-being of American families [monograph on the Internet]. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep [cited 2006 Nov 2]. 34 p. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Collins_squeezedrisinghltcarecosts_953.pdf

Fact sheet: AIDS information resources [monograph on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2003 May 2 [updated 2005 Jul 14; cited 2006 Nov 15]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/aidsinfs.html

2. Book on the Internet with optional full names for author(s)

Collins, Sara R.; Kriss, Jennifer L.; Davis, Karen; Doty, Michelle M.; Holmgren, Alyssa L. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and financial well-being of American families [Internet]. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep [cited 2006 Nov 2]. 34 p. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Collins_squeezedrisinghltcarecosts_953.pdf

3. Book on the Internet with optional limit to the number of authors/editors

Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, et al., editors. Harrison's online [Internet]. 16th ed. Columbus (OH): McGraw-Hill Companies; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. Available from: http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4

or

Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, and others, editors. Harrison's online [Internet]. 16th ed. Columbus (OH): McGraw-Hill Companies; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. Available from: http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4

4. Book on the Internet with author/editor surnames having a prefix or particle

Irwin RJ, van Mouwerik M, Stevens L, Seese MD, Basham W, compilers and editors. Environmental contaminants encyclopedia [Internet]. Fort Collins (CO): National Park Service (US), Water Resources Divisions, Water Operations Branch; 1998 Feb [updated 2003 Dec 11; cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.nature.nps.gov/toxic/index.html

Zubrick SR, Lawrence D, de Maio J, Biddle N. Testing the reliability of a measure of Aboriginal children's mental health: an analysis based on the Western Australian Aboriginal child health survey [Internet]. Belconnen (Australia): Australian Bureau of Statistics; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 65 p. Available from: http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/B9B45094C93CD3ACCA25712400156C7C/$File/1351055011_mar%202006.pdf

De Castro P, Salinetti S. Guidelines for the production of scientific and technical reports: how to write and distribute grey literature [Internet]. Version 1.0. Rome (Italy): Grey Literature International Steering Committee; 2006 Mar [cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 20 p.]. Available from: http://www.glisc.info/.

McCarthy D, Blumenthal D. Committed to safety: ten case studies on reducing harm to patients [Internet]. [New York]: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Apr [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 83 p. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/McCarthy_safetycasestudies_923.pdf

Noel Walker J, Del Rosso JM, Karyl Held A. Nutrition and physical activity field assessment of children in rural America [Internet]. Westport (CT): Save the Children; 2005 Mar [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 37 p. Available from: http://www.savethechildren.org/publications/technical-resources/us-programs/Final_Field_Assessment_2005.pdf

5. Book on the Internet with author/editor surnames showing designations of family rank

Kahn CE Jr, editor. CHORUS: Collaborative Hypertext of Radiology [Internet]. [Milwaukee]: Medical College of Wisconsin; 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://chorus.rad.mcw.edu/.

Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6 [Internet]. Hamilton (ON): B.C. Decker Inc.; c2003 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. 2400 p. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=cmed6.TOC&depth=2

6. Book on the Internet with author having compound surnames

Afnan-Manns S, Dorr A. E-literate: promoting 21st century literacy skills [Internet]. Los Angeles (CA): UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies; 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. 8 p. Available from: http://www.newliteracies.gseis.ucla.edu/video/E_literateSurveyReport.pdf

Noel Walker J, Del Rosso JM, Karyl Held A. Nutrition and physical activity field assessment of children in rural America [Internet]. Westport (CT): Save the Children; 2005 Mar [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 37 p. Available from: http://www.savethechildren.org/publications/technical-resources/us-programs/Final_Field_Assessment_2005.pdf

7. Book on the Internet with an organization(s) as author

Federal Communicators Network (US). Communicators guide for federal, state, regional, and local communicators [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Agriculture (US); 2000 Dec [revised 2001 Dec; cited 2006 Nov 1]. [about 75 p.]. Available from: http://www.usda.gov/news/pubs/fcn/table.htm

Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. The uninsured and their access to health care [Internet]. Washington: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2006 Oct [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 2 p. Available from: http://www.kff.org/uninsured/upload/The-Uninsured-and-Their-Access-to-Health-Care-Oct-2004.pdf

National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). Genes and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information; 1998 -   [cited 2015 Mar 11]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22183/.

8. Book on the Internet with an organization as author having subsidiary division

National Academy of Sciences (US), Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Clinical Trial Registries. Developing a national registry of pharmacologic and biologic clinical trials: workshop report [Internet]. Washington: National Academies Press (US); 2006 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/030910078X/html/.

9. Book on the Internet with more than one organization as author

American Academy of Pain Medicine; American Pain Society. The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain: a consensus statement [Internet]. Glenview (IL): American Academy of Pain Medicine; c1997 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. 4 p. Available from: http://www.painmed.org/productpub/statements/pdfs/opioids.pdf

10. Book on the Internet with editors where there is no author

Beers MH, Jones TV, Berkwits M, Kaplan JL, Porter R, editors. The Merck manual of health & aging [Internet]. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; c2005 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_ha/contents.html

Oblinger DG, Oblinger JL, editors. Educating the Net Generation [Internet]. Boulder (CO): EDUCAUSE; c2005 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. 264 p. Available from: http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub7101.pdf ; http://www.educause.edu/educatingthenetgen/.

11. Book on the Internet with no authors or editors

Making a difference: state injury and violence prevention programs [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): State and Territorial Injury Prevention Directors Association; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 120 p. Available from: http://www.stipda.org/associations/5805/files/MakingADifference2006.pdf

Temporary Medicare-approved drug discount card: beneficiaries' awareness and use of information resources [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Inspector General; 2005 Oct [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 42 p. Available from: http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-04-00200.pdf

The "bad bug book" [Internet]. College Park (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US), Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition; 1992 [updated 2006 Apr 25; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/intro.html

12. Book on the Internet with author affiliation

Strasburger VC (Division of Adolescent Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM). Children, adolescents, and the media: five crucial issues [Internet]. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota, Children Youth and Family Consortium; 1993 [updated 2002 Apr 27; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.cyfc.umn.edu/adolescents/research/crissues.html

Fox MK (Abt Associates Inc., Bethesda, MD), Hamilton W (Abt Associates Inc., Bethesda, MD), Lin BH (Economics Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC). Effects of food assistance and nutrition programs on nutrition and health. Vol. 4, Executive summary of the literature review [Internet]. Washington: Department of Agriculture (US), Economic Research Service, Food and Rural Economics Division; 2004 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 174 p. (Food assistance and nutrition research report; no. 19-4). Available from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr19-4/fanrr19-4.pdf

13. Book on the Internet with title having a subtitle

D'Alessandro DM, Takle TE. Virtual pediatric patients: a digital storytelling system for teaching common pediatric problems [Internet]. Iowa City (IA): Virtual Pediatric Hospital; 1996 Aug [revised 1997 Dec; cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/providers/VirtualPedsPatients/PedsVPHome.shtml

14. Book on the Internet with special characters in the title

(Wĕbopēdia) [Internet]. Darien (CT): Jupitermedia Corporation; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 16]. Available from: http://www.webopedia.com/.

15. Book on the Internet with title ending in other than a period

The "bad bug book" [Internet]. College Park (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US), Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition; 1992 [updated 2006 Apr 25; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/intro.html

Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Who needs Medicaid? [Internet]. Washington: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2006 Apr [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.kff.org/medicaid/upload/7496.pdf

16. Book on the Internet in a language other than English

Harpes JP, Milmeister JC, editors. La recherche sur les embryons [Internet]. Luxembourg: Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg; 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 103 p. Available from: http://www.cne.public.lu/publications/avis/2002_2_2002_3_2003_1.pdf#search=%22%22la%20recherche%20sur%20les%20embryons%22%20%2Bcne%22 French.

Abriendo un camino genetico: familias y cientificos se unen en la busqueda de genes defectuosos que causan enfermedades [Internet]. Chevy Chase (MD): Howard Hughes Medical Institute; c1991 [updated 2002; cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.hhmi.org/genetictrail-esp/. Spanish.

Le scandaleux docteur Doyen, ou, La tragedie solitaire d'un surdoue [Internet]. Paris: Bibliotheque Interuniversitaire de Medecine et d'Odontologie; 2006 Jan [cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 7 screens]. Available from: http://www.bium.univ-paris5.fr/histmed/medica/doyen.htm French.

with translation included

Harpes JP, Milmeister JC, editors. La recherche sur les embryons [Embryonic research] [Internet]. Luxembourg: Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg; 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 103 p. Available from: http://www.cne.public.lu/publications/avis/2002_2_2002_3_2003_1.pdf#search=%22%22la%20recherche%20sur%20les%20embryons%22%20%2Bcne%22 French.

Abriendo un camino genetico: familias y cientificos se unen en la busqueda de genes defectuosos que causan enfermedades [Blazing a genetic trial: families and scientists join in seeking the flawed genes that cause disease] [Internet]. Chevy Chase (MD): Howard Hughes Medical Institute; c1991 [updated 2002; cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.hhmi.org/genetictrail-esp/. Spanish.

Le scandaleux docteur Doyen, ou, La tragedie solitaire d'un surdoue [The scandalous Dr. Doyen, or, The solitary tragedy of a prodigy] [Internet]. Paris: Bibliotheque Interuniversitaire de Medecine et d'Odontologie; 2006 Jan [cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 7 screens]. Available from: http://www.bium.univ-paris5.fr/histmed/medica/doyen.htm French.

17. Book on the Internet published with equal text in two or more languages

Settle TB, compiler. La storia e la filosofia della scienza, della tecnologia e della medicina = The history and philosophy of science, technology and medicine [Internet]. Florence (Italy): IMSS & Polytechnic University; c1994-2006 [updated 2006 Aug 22; cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 20 p.]. Available from: http://www.imss.fi.it/%7etsettle/index.html Italian, English.

Robinson A, compiler. Veterinary public health and control of zoonoses in developing countries = Sante publique veterinaire et controle des zoonoses dans les pays en developpement = Salud publica veterinaria y control de zoonosis en paises en desarrollo [Internet]. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 17]. [about 110 p.]. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4962t/y4962t00.htm English, French, Spanish.

18. Book on the Internet published with optional content type

Zieger K. Die Bedeutung der deutschen Arztevereine fur das wissenschaftliche Leben, die medizinische Versorgung und soziale Belange der Stadt St. Petersburg von 1819-1914 [dissertation on the Internet]. Leipzig (Germany): Universitat Leipzig, Karl-Sudhoff-Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 123 p. Available from: http://www.vifaost.de/w/pdf/zieger-aerzte.pdf German.

Toolkit of instruments to measure end of life [bibliography on the Internet]. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, Center to Improve Care of the Dying; [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.gwu.edu/~cicd/toolkit/toolkit.htm

Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [monograph on the Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000 [revised 2001 Oct 1; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.rad.washington.edu/mskbook/index.html

19. Book on the Internet with an edition or version

Wilkinson R, Marmot M, editors. Social determinants of health: the solid facts [Internet]. 2nd ed. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe; c2003 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 31 p. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/document/e81384.pdf

Thomas RL. The eclectic practice of medicine [Internet]. Illus. 2nd ed. Cincinnati (OH): Scudder Brothers Co.; 1907 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.swsbm.com/EclecticMed/EclecticPractice.html

Breast cancer treatment guidelines for patients [Internet]. Version 7. Jenkintown (PA): National Comprehensive Cancer Network (US); 2005 Aug [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.nccn.org/patients/patient_gls/_english/_breast/contents.asp

Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [Internet]. Version 4.2.6. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2006 [updated 2006 Sep; cited 2006 Nov 3]. 257 p. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook/handbook.pdf

20. Book on the Internet with an edition and a version

Beers MH, Fletcher AJ, Jones TV, Porter R, Berkwits R, Kaplan JL, editors. The Merck manual of medical information [Internet]. 2nd home ed.; Online version. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; c2004-2006 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.merck.com/mmhe/index.html

21. Book on the Internet with authors and editors or other secondary authors

CENDI Copyright Working Group. Frequently asked questions about copyright: a template for the promotion of awareness among CENDI agency staff [Internet]. Klein B, Hodge G, editors. Oak Ridge (TN): CENDI Secretariat; 2004 Aug [modified 2006 Sep 2; cited 2006 Nov 6]. Available from: http://cendi.dtic.mil/publications/04-8copyright.html

Hecker JF. The Black Death and the dancing mania [Internet]. Babington BG, translator. Champaign (IL): Project Gutenberg; 1999 May 1 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1739

Baydar N, McCann M, Williams R, Vesper E (Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Seattle, WA). Final report. WIC infant feeding practices study [Internet]. Wieringa D, Sitchin K, editors. Alexandria (VA): Department of Agriculture (US), Food and Consumer Service, Office of Analysis and Evaluation; 1997 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 254 p. Contract No.: 53-3198-3-003. Available from: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS9308

Hippocrates. Aphorisms [Internet]. Adams F, translator. [place unknown]: D.C. Stevenson, Web Atomics; c1994-2000 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://classics.mit.edu/Hippocrates/aphorisms.html

22. Book on the Internet with well known place of publication

Are you worried about...cancer? [Internet]. London: Cancerbackup; c2003 [reviewed 2004 Sep 1; modified 2006 Aug 17; cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 5 screens]. Available from: http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/Aboutcancer/Genetics/Areyouworriedabout/cancer

Barnitz L. The health care response to pandemic influenza: a position paper of the American College of Physicians [Internet]. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 2006 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 21 p. Available from: http://www.acponline.org/college/pressroom/as06/pandemic_policy.pdf

23. Book on the Internet with qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Internet]. Columbia (MD): Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; [updated 2005; cited 2006 Nov 3]. 115 p. Available from: http://www.goldcopd.com/Guidelineitem.asp?l1=2&l2=1&intId=989 Based on April 1998 NHLBI/WHO workshop.

Matas D, Kilgour D. Report into allegations of organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in China [Internet]. Edmonton (AL): David Kilgour; 2006 Jul 6 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 66 p. Available from: http://www.david-kilgour.com/2006/Kilgour-Matas-organ-harvesting-rpt-July6-eng.pdf

Baade PD, Fritschi L, Aitken JF. Geographical differentials in cancer incidence and survival in Queensland: 1996 to 2002 [Internet]. Brisbane (Australia): Queensland Cancer Fund, Viertel Centre for Research in Cancer Control; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 72 p. Available from: http://www.qldcancer.com.au/pdf/research/Geographicalincidencereport.asp.pdf

PubMed tutorial [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2013 Oct 21 -   [updated 2014 Feb 26; cited 2015 Apr 28]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/disted/pubmedtutorial/.

24. Book on the Internet with place of publication inferred

Temporary Medicare-approved drug discount card: beneficiaries' awareness and use of information resources [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Inspector General; 2005 Oct [cited Nov 17]. 42 p. Available from: http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-04-00200.pdf

Trends in tuberculosis morbidity and mortality [Internet]. [New York]: American Lung Association, Research and Program Services, Epidemiology and Statistics Unit; 2006 Jul [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 32 p. Available from: http://www.lungusa.org/atf/cf/{7A8D42C2-FCCA-4604-8ADE-7F5D5E762256}/TB06FINAL.PDF

Rosenbaum EH, Piper BF, Dodd M, Dzubur K, Glover M, Kramer P, Kurshner RA, Manuel F. Fatigue reduction and management for the primary side-effects of cancer therapy [Internet]. [California]: Cancer Supportive Care; 1999 May 1 [updated 2004 Sep 9; cited 2006 Nov 1]. [about 9 p.]. Available from: http://www.cancersupportivecare.com/fatigue.html

25. Book on the Internet with unknown place of publication

Suber P. Unbinding knowledge: a proposal for providing open access to past research articles, starting with the most important [Internet]. [place unknown]: Peter Suber; 2004 May 3 [revised 2005 Nov 16; cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 11 p.]. Available from: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/writing/unbind.htm

Hippocrates. Aphorisms [Internet]. Adams F, translator. [place unknown]: D.C. Stevenson, Web Atomics; c1994-2000 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://classics.mit.edu/Hippocrates/aphorisms.html

26. Book on the Internet with publisher having subsidiary division

Wilkinson R, Marmot M, editors. Social determinants of health: the solid facts [Internet]. 2nd ed. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe; c2003 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 31 p. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/document/e81384.pdf

The electronic health record in practice: why, how, and what next? Site visit report [Internet]. Washington: George Washington University, National Health Policy Forum; 2006 Sep 26 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 22 p. Available from: http://www.nhpf.org/pdfs_sv/SV_EHR_09-26-06.pdf

Consultations in Medicare: coding and reimbursement [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Inspector General; 2006 Mar [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 21 p. Available from: http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-09-02-00030.pdf

27. Book on the Internet with government agency or other national body as publisher

Federal Communicators Network (US). Communicators guide for federal, state, regional, and local communicators [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Agriculture (US); 2000 Dec [revised 2001 Dec; cited 2006 Nov 1]. [about 75 p.]. Available from: http://www.usda.gov/news/pubs/fcn/table.htm

28. Book on the Internet with joint publication

American Academy of Pain Medicine; American Pain Society. The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain: a consensus statement [Internet]. Glenview (IL): American Academy of Pain Medicine; c1997 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. 4 p. Available from: http://www.painmed.org/productpub/statements/pdfs/opioids.pdf Jointly published by the American Pain Society.

29. Book on the Internet with month(s)/day(s) included in date of publication

Summary investigative report on allegations of possible scientific misconduct on the part of Gerald P. Schatten, Ph.D. [Internet]. Pittsburgh (PA): University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; 2006 Feb 8 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 9 p. Available from: http://newsbureau.upmc.com/PDF/Final%20Public%20Report%202.08.pdf

Trends in tuberculosis morbidity and mortality [Internet]. [New York]: American Lung Association, Research and Program Services, Epidemiology and Statistics Unit; 2006 Jul [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 32 p. Available from: http://www.lungusa.org/atf/cf/{7A8D42C2-FCCA-4604-8ADE-7F5D5E762256}/TB06FINAL.PDF

30. Book on the Internet with season included in date of publication

Rideout VJ, Vandewater EA, Wartella E. Zero to six: electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers and preschoolers [Internet]. Menlo Park (CA): Kaiser Family Foundation; 2003 Fall [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 36 p. Available from: http://www.kff.org/entmedia/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=22754

Bronheim S. Infusing cultural and linguistic competence into the multiple systems encountered by families following the sudden, unexpected death of an infant [Internet]. Washington: Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development, National Center for Cultural Competence; 2003 Spring-Summer [cited 2006 Nov 6]. 12 p. Available from: http://gucchd.georgetown.edu/nccc/documents/SIDS_ID_PB_Aug_03.pdf

31. Book on the Internet with date of copyright instead of date of publication

A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2005 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Griffiths AJ, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM. Introduction to genetic analysis [Internet]. 7th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.; c2000 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=iga.TOC

32. Book on the Internet with multiple years of publication or copyright

American Phytopathological Society, Committee on Standardization of Common Names for Plant Diseases. Common names of plant diseases [Internet]. St Paul (MN): The Society; 1978-2005 [cited 2006 Nov 17]. Available from: http://www.apsnet.org/online/common/.

Beers MH, Fletcher AJ, Jones TV, Porter R, Berkwits R, Kaplan JL, editors. The Merck manual of medical information [Internet]. 2nd home ed.; Online version. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; c2004-2006 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.merck.com/mmhe/index.html

Drugge R, Dunn HA, editors. The electronic textbook of dermatology [Internet]. [place unknown]: Internet Dermatology Society, Inc.; c1995-2000 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://telemedicine.org/stamford.htm

33. Book on the Internet with date estimated

Evaluation of health literacy work among libraries and community organizations in the New York City area: report highlights [Internet]. New York: Americans for Libraries Council; [2002?] [cited 2006 Nov 1]. 4 p. Available from: http://www.lff.org/programs/hlconfeval.pdf

34. Book on the Internet with update/revision date

Rosenbaum EH, Piper BF, Dodd M, Dzubur K, Glover M, Kramer P, Kurshner RA, Manuel F. Fatigue reduction and management for the primary side-effects of cancer therapy [Internet]. [California]: Cancer Supportive Care; 1999 May 1 [updated 2004 Sep 9; cited 2006 Nov 1]. [about 9 p.]. Available from: http://www.cancersupportivecare.com/fatigue.html

Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000 [revised 2001 Oct 1; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.rad.washington.edu/mskbook/index.html

Are you worried about...cancer? [Internet]. London: Cancerbackup; c2003 [reviewed 2004 Sep 1; modified 2006 Aug 17; cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 5 screens]. Available from: http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/Aboutcancer/Genetics/Areyouworriedabout/cancer

35. Book on the Internet with no date of publication or copyright

Atlases of the brain [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah, Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library; [cited 2006 Nov 15]. Available from: http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/brain_atlas/.

Bibliography of numeracy resources 1980-2005 [Internet]. Ottawa (OT): Government of Canada, Human Resources and Social Development; [modified 2006 Jan 1; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/hip/lld/nls/Resources/07_numbib.shtml

Toolkit of instruments to measure end of life [Internet]. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, Center to Improve Care of the Dying; [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.gwu.edu/~cicd/toolkit/toolkit.htm

36. Book on the Internet with standard page numbers

Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [Internet]. Version 4.2.6. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2006 [updated 2006 Sep; cited 2006 Nov 3]. 257 p. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook/handbook.pdf

37. Book on the Internet with extent expressed other than page numbers

Lewis M. Governance and corruption in public health care systems [Internet]. Washington: Center for Global Development; 2006 Jan [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 494 KB. Available from: http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/5967

FAQ: pill identification [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Mar 15; cited 2006 Nov 6]. 3 paragraphs. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/services/drug_id.html

38. Book on the Internet with extent estimated

De Castro P, Salinetti S. Guidelines for the production of scientific and technical reports: how to write and distribute grey literature [Internet]. Version 1.0. Rome (Italy): Grey Literature International Steering Committee; 2006 Mar [cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 20 p.]. Available from: http://www.glisc.info/.

Le scandaleux docteur Doyen, ou, La tragedie solitaire d'un surdoue [The scandalous Dr. Doyen, or, The solitary tragedy of a prodigy] [Internet]. Paris: Bibliotheque Interuniversitaire de Medecine et d'Odontologie; 2006 Jan [cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 7 screens]. Available from: http://www.bium.univ-paris5.fr/histmed/medica/doyen.htm French.

39. Book on the Internet that is a video, videocast, or podcast

Banja J. Discussing unanticipated outcomes and disclosing medical errors [Internet]. [place unknown]: Georgia Hospital Association; [2001?] [cited 2006 Nov 17]. Video: 55 min. Available from: http://www.gha.org/pha/video/index.asp

Alberts B. Spreading science throughout the world: how, why and when? [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Videocast: 65 min. Available from: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?10488

Tracey E, Lange R. [Podcast for week of November 6, 2006] [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2006 Nov 6 [cited 2006 Nov 7]. Podcast: 10 min. Available from: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/mediaII/Podcasts.html

James and the peanut allergy [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah, Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library; 2011 Mar 31 [cited 2011 Jul 11]. Video: 52 sec. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VoCAizDEKlM&feature=player_embedded Produced in collaboration with the Biomedical Informatics Department.

My Bibliography: public access compliance [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2013 Apr [cited 2015 May 5]. Video: 3:26 min. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JYODIOD_YYE

40. Book on the Internet with a series

Ziglio E, Barbosa R, Charpak Y, Turner S, editors. Health systems confront poverty [Internet]. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe; 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. (Public health case studies; no. 1). Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/document/e80225.pdf

Alberts B. Spreading science throughout the world: how, why and when? [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Videocast: 65 min. (David E. Barmes global health lecture; 3). Available from: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?10488

41. Book on the Internet with multiple series

Prescription drugs: abuse and addiction [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse (US); 2001 Jul [revised 2005 Aug; cited 2006 Nov 3]. 12 p. (NIDA research report series); (NIH publication; no. 05-4881). Available from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRPrescription.pdf

42. Book on the Internet with DOI included

Schiraldi GR. Post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. 446 p. Available from: http://books.mcgraw-hill.com/getbook.php?isbn=0071393722&template=#toc doi: 10.1036/0737302658

43. Book on the Internet with optional system requirements

Cook N. AIDS in Africa [Internet]. Washington: Library of Congress (US), Congressional Research Service; 2006 [updated 2006 Mar 9; cited 2006 Nov 3]. 16 p. Available from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/IB10050.pdf System Requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Airiani S, Braunstein RE, Chang S, editors. Digital reference of ophthalmology [Internet]. New York: Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute; c2003 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://dro.hs.columbia.edu/. System Requirements: Browser must be able to handle tables, javascript, and other advanced features; Netscape Navigator (version 4.0 or greater) or Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 4.0 or greater) is recommended.

Banja J. Discussing unanticipated outcomes and disclosing medical errors [Internet]. [place unknown]: Georgia Hospital Association; [2001?] [cited 2006 Nov 17]. Video: 55 min. Available from: http://www.gha.org/pha/video/index.asp System Requirements: RealPlayer and a T1 line.

44. Book on the Internet with supplemental note included

Sayers R. Principles of awareness-raising: information literacy, a case study [Internet]. Bangkok (Thailand): UNESCO Bangkok; 2006 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. 124 p. Available from: http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/22439/11510733461Principles_of_Awareness_Raising_19th_April_06.pdf/Principles%2Bof%2BAwareness_Raising_19th%2BApril%2B06.pdf ISBN: 92-9223-082-4.

Kahn CE Jr, editor. CHORUS: Collaborative Hypertext of Radiology [Internet]. [Milwaukee]: Medical College of Wisconsin; 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://chorus.rad.mcw.edu/. Supported in part by USPHS grant G08 LM05705 from the National Library of Medicine.

Thomas RL. The eclectic practice of medicine [Internet]. Illus. 2nd ed. Cincinnati (OH): Scudder Brothers Co.; 1907 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.swsbm.com/EclecticMed/EclecticPractice.html Internet version by the Southwest School of Botanical Medicine, Bisbee, AZ.

Reitz JM. ODLIS: online dictionary for library and information science [Internet]. Westport (CT): Libraries Unlimited; c2004-2006 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. Available from: http://lu.com/odlis/odlis_c.cfm Also available as a print book from the publisher.

45. One volume of a book on the Internet

Fox MK, Hamilton W, Lin BH. Effects of food assistance and nutrition programs on nutrition and health. Vol. 4, Executive summary of the literature review [Internet]. Washington: Department of Agriculture (US), Economic Research Service, Food and Rural Economics Division; 2004 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 174 p. Available from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr19-4/fanrr19-4.pdf

46. Dictionary on the Internet

Merriam-Webster medical dictionary [Internet]. Springfield (MA): Merriam-Webster Incorporated; c2005 [cited 2006 Nov 16]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/mplusdictionary.html

Cambridge dictionaries online [Internet]. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/.

Reitz JM. ODLIS: online dictionary for library and information science [Internet]. Westport (CT): Libraries Unlimited; c2004-2006 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. Available from: http://lu.com/odlis/odlis_c.cfm

47. Encyclopedia on the Internet

A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2005 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Irwin RJ, van Mouwerik M, Stevens L, Seese MD, Basham W, compilers and editors. Environmental contaminants encyclopedia [Internet]. Fort Collins (CO): National Park Service (US), Water Resources Divisions, Water Operations Branch; 1998 Feb [updated 2003 Dec 11; cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.nature.nps.gov/toxic/index.html

48. Conference proceedings on the Internet

Include 2005 [Internet]. Proceedings of the International Conference on Inclusive Design; 2005 Apr 5-8; London. London: Royal College of Art, Helen Hamlyn Research Centre; [cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 130 p.]. Available from: http://www.hhrc.rca.ac.uk/programmes/include/2005/proceedings/index.html

Bashook PG, Miller SH, Parboosingh J, Horowitz SD, editors. Credentialing physician specialists: a world perspective [Internet]. Proceedings; 2000 Jun 8-10; Chicago. Evanston (IL): American Board of Medical Specialties, Research and Education Foundation; [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 221 p. Available from: http://www.abms.org/publications.asp

49. Technical report on the Internet

Arkes J, Pacula RL, Paddock S, Caulkins JP, Reuter P (RAND Drug Policy Research Center, Santa Monica, CA). Technical report for the price and purity of illicit drugs: 1981 through the second quarter of 2003 [Internet]. Washington: Executive Office of the President (US), Office of National Drug Control Policy; 2004 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 83 p. Contract No.: DHHS 282-00-0016. Report No.: NCJ 207769. Available from: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/price_purity_tech_rpt/price_purity_tech_rpt.pdf

Baydar N, McCann M, Williams R, Vesper E (Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Seattle, WA). Final report. WIC infant feeding practices study [Internet]. Wieringa D, Sitchin K, editors. Alexandria (VA): Department of Agriculture (US), Food and Consumer Service, Office of Analysis and Evaluation; 1997 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 254 p. Contract No.: 53-3198-3-003. Available from: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS9308

50. Dissertation on the Internet

Zieger K. Die Bedeutung der deutschen Arztevereine fur das wissenschaftliche Leben, die medizinische Versorgung und soziale Belange der Stadt St. Petersburg von 1819-1914 [dissertation on the Internet]. Leipzig (Germany): Universitat Leipzig, Karl-Sudhoff-Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 123 p. Available from: http://www.vifaost.de/w/pdf/zieger-aerzte.pdf German.

51. Bibliography on the Internet

Zorn M, Ratzan S, compilers. Health risk communication [bibliography on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000 Oct [cited 2006 Nov 14]. 59 p. (Current bibliographies in medicine; no. 2000-7). Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/cbm/health_risk_communication.pdf 847 citations from January 1990 through October 2000, plus selected earlier citations.

Settle TB, compiler. La storia e la filosofia della scienza, della tecnologia e della medicina = The history and philosophy of science, technology and medicine [bibliography on the Internet]. Florence (Italy): IMSS & Polytechnic University; c1994-2006 [updated 2006 Aug 22; cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 20 p.]. Available from: http://www.imss.fi.it/%7etsettle/index.html Italian, English.

Toolkit of instruments to measure end of life [bibliography on the Internet]. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, Center to Improve Care of the Dying; [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.gwu.edu/~cicd/toolkit/toolkit.htm

Bailey CW Jr, compiler. Scholarly electronic publishing bibliography [Internet]. Version 65. Houston (TX): Charles W. Bailey, Jr.; c1996-2006 [updated 2006 Nov 2; cited 2006 Nov 6]. Available from: http://www.digital-scholarship.com/sepb/sepb.html

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Books on the Internet

The general format for a reference to part of an Internet book, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to part of an Internet
book.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Books on the Internet

Separately identified portions of a book may be cited. Chapters, sections, tables, charts, graphs, photographs, appendixes, and the like are considered parts of books when they are written or compiled by the authors of the book. They are contributions when the book has an overall editor or editors and the individual chapters or other components in the book are written by various authors, usually called contributors.

In general, most modern texts have standardized to three types of parts: figures, tables, and appendixes. However, other names may be found for parts, including section, chart, graph, box, and photograph.

Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication:

  • Begin a reference to a part of a book with information about the book; follow it with the information about the part. See also Chapter 2C Parts of Books for additional examples of parts to books in print or in microform (microfilm, microfiche).
  • Begin a reference to a contribution with information about the contribution, followed by the word "In:" and information about the book itself. See Chapter 22C Contributions to Books on the Internet for details.

The primary difference between citing a part of a print book and an Internet book is in expressing the location (pagination) of the part. Unless an Internet book is in PDF (Portable Document Format), standard page numbers are not available. For non-PDF books:

  • Give location as the total extent of the part.
  • Calculate extent by the best means possible, in terms of the number of print pages, screens, paragraphs, or bytes, and place the total in square brackets. Screen size, font used, and printers vary greatly, but the purpose is to give an indication of the length of the part.
  • Use the word "about" before the length indicator when the number is calculated.

Medical texts frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as parts using these instructions. Consult the original publication and cite the particular item from there.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts Books on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Books on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Books on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Entire Book (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R)

Entire Book on the Internet (required)

Name and Number/Letter for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Name and Number/Letter

  • Enter the name of the part as it appears in the book
  • Capitalize the name, such as Chapter, Table, Figure, or Appendix
  • Do not abbreviate names. For example, convert Fig. to Figure.
  • Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Chapter 12, Table 2, Figure 3.1, or Appendix A
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
  • End name and number/letter information with a comma and a space

Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter

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Non-English names for parts.

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No letter or number follows the name.

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Part is a video clip, videocast, or podcast.

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No name appears.

Title for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the part as it appears in the book
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End title information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles for parts not in English.

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Titles for parts in more than one language.

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Titles for parts containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character.

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No title appears.

Date of Update/Revision for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Parts of books may be updated or revised between editions or versions
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated and modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Both a date of update and a date of revision.

Examples for Date of Update/Revision

Date of Citation for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the part of a book was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a semicolon placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation.

Location (Pagination) for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

For books with standard page numbers such as those in PDF
  • Begin location with "p." followed by a space
  • Enter the page number or numbers on which the part appears. Examples: p. 438 and p. 663-4.
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: p. S10-8.
  • End location with a period
For books without page numbers
  • Give location as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes of the part, whichever is most practical; precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 15 screens]
  • If the part is printed out, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 10 p.]
  • End location information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Roman numerals for page numbers.

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Part paginated separately.

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No page numbers appear on the pages of the part.

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Part is a video clip, videocast, or podcast.

Availability for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the part in its entirety; do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • Use the URL for the entire book if the part does not have its own URL
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs.

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URLs not directly addressable.

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Multiple URLs.

Language for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Parts appearing in more than one language.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Books on the Internet

1. Standard citation to a part of a book on the Internet with traditional page numbers for location

Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [Internet]. Version 4.2.6. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2006 [updated 2006 Sep]. Chapter 3, Guide to the contents of a protocol and review; [cited 2006 Nov 17]; p. 37-57. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook/handbook.pdf

with optional content designator

Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [monograph on the Internet]. Version 4.2.6. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2006 [updated 2006 Sep]. Chapter 3, Guide to the contents of a protocol and review; [cited 2006 Nov 17]; p. 37-57. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook/handbook.pdf

with optional full names for authors/editors

Higgins, Julian P.; Green, Sally, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [Internet]. Version 4.2.6. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2006 [updated 2006 Sep]. Guide to the contents of a protocol and review; [cited 2006 Nov 17]; p. 37-57. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook/handbook.pdf

2. Part of a book on the Internet with extent calculated

Berg JM, Tymoczco JL, Stryer L. Biochemistry [Internet]. 5th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company; c2002. Chapter 14.2.3, Stages in the extraction of energy from foodstuffs; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [4 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=krebs+AND+stryer%5Bbook%5D+AND+216023%5Buid%5D&rid=stryer.section.1954#1961

Federal Communicators Network (US). Communicators guide for federal, state, regional, and local communicators [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Agriculture (US); 2000 Dec [revised 2001 Dec]. Chapter 4, The Internet; [cited 2006 Nov 1]; [about 6 p.]. Available from: http://www.usda.gov/news/pubs/fcn/chapter4.htm

Cooper GM. The cell: a molecular approach [Internet]. 2nd ed. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000. Figure 8.28, Ribosome assembly; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=nucleolus+AND+cooper%5Bbook%5D+AND+165606%5Buid%5D&rid=cooper.figgrp.1372

3. Chapter in a book on the Internet

National Academy of Sciences (US), Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Clinical Trial Registries. Developing a national registry of pharmacologic and biologic clinical trials: workshop report [Internet]. Washington: National Academies Press (US); 2006. Chapter 5, Implementation issues; [cited 2006 Nov 3]; p. 35-42. Available from: http://newton.nap.edu/books/030910078X/html/35.html

Federal Communicators Network (US). Communicators guide for federal, state, regional, and local communicators [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Agriculture (US); 2000 Dec [revised 2001 Dec]. Chapter 3, Writing communication plans; [cited 2006 Nov 7]; [about 12 p.]. Available from: http://www.usda.gov/news/pubs/fcn/chapter3.htm

The chemistry of health [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of General Medical Sciences (US); 2000 Sep. Chapter 5, The healing power of chemistry; [cited 2006 Nov 17]; [about 10 screens]. (NIH publication; no. 00-4121). Available from: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/chemhealth/chapter5.html#

4. Table in a book on the Internet

Noel Walker J, Del Rosso JM, Karyl Held A. Nutrition and physical activity field assessment of children in rural America [Internet]. Westport (CT): Save the Children; 2005 Mar. Table 1, Prevalence of overweight among rural children in Save the Children regions; [cited 2006 Nov 7]; p. 2. Available from: http://www.savethechildren.org/publications/technical-resources/us-programs/Final_Field_Assessment_2005.pdf

National Academy of Sciences (US), Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Clinical Trial Registries. Developing a national registry of pharmacologic and biologic clinical trials: workshop report [Internet]. Washington: National Academies Press (US); 2006. Table 4-1, Clinical trial registry data fields discussed at IOM meetings; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://newton.nap.edu/books/030910078X/html/26.html

Zubrick SR, Lawrence D, de Maio J, Biddle N. Testing the reliability of a measure of Aboriginal children's mental health: an analysis based on the Western Australian Aboriginal child health survey [Internet]. Belconnen (Australia): Australian Bureau of Statistics; c2006. Table 3.5, SDQ items and variable names used in later modelling; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. 17. Available from: http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/B9B45094C93CD3ACCA25712400156C7C/$File/1351055011_mar%202006.pdf

Making a difference: state injury and violence prevention programs [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): State and Territorial Injury Prevention Directors Association; c2006. [Table], 10 leading causes of death by age group; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. 11. Available from: http://www.stipda.org/associations/5805/files/MakingADifference2006.pdf

5. Figure in a book on the Internet

Collins SR, Kriss JL, Davis K, Doty MM, Holmgren AL. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and financial well-being of American families [Internet]. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep. Figure ES-1, Individual market is not an affordable option for many people; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. viii. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Collins_squeezedrisinghltcarecosts_953.pdf

Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000. [Figure], A patient with rather dysplastic fibulas due to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; [updated 2006 May 24; cited 2006 Nov 15]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.rad.washington.edu/mskbook/dysplasia.html

6. Appendix in a book on the Internet

De Castro P, Salinetti S. Guidelines for the production of scientific and technical reports: how to write and distribute grey literature [Internet]. Version 1.0. Rome: Grey Literature International Steering Committee; 2006 Mar. Annex, List of institutions adopting the Guidelines; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.glisc.info/#Annex

Beers MH, Jones TV, Berkwits M, Kaplan JL, Porter R, editors. The Merck manual of health & aging [Internet]. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; c2005. Appendix 2, Resources for help and information; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [about 22 p.]. Available from: http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_ha/appends/append2/intro.html

Temporary Medicare-approved drug discount card: beneficiaries' awareness and use of information resources [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Inspector General; 2005 Oct. Appendix E, Beneficiary knowledge of drug card program; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. 35-6. Available from: http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-04-00200.pdf

7. Photograph in a book on the Internet

The Urbana atlas of pathology [Internet]. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign; c1994-1997. Image No. 034, Left ventricular hypertrophy, heart; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.med.uiuc.edu/PathAtlasf/CVAtlas034.html

8. Video clip in a book on the Internet

Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky LS, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J. Molecular cell biology [Internet]. 4th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman; 2000. [Video], Immunoblot and enzyme-linked assay; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [3 min.]. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bookres.fcgi/mcb/ch3anim4.mov

9. Dictionary entry on the Internet

Merriam-Webster medical dictionary [Internet]. Springfield (MA): Merriam-Webster Incorporated; c2005. Cloning; [cited 2006 Nov 16]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www2.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/mwmednlm?book=Medical&va=cloning

Reitz JM. ODLIS: online dictionary for library and information science [Internet]. Westport (CT): Libraries Unlimited; c2004-2006. Digital Object Identifier (DOI); [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [2 paragraphs]. Available from: http://lu.com/odlis/odlis_d.cfm#doi

10. Encyclopedia entry on the Internet

A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2005. Ear barotrauma; [updated 2006 Oct 20; cited 2006 Nov 16]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001064.htm

(Wĕbopēdia) [Internet]. Darien (CT): Jupitermedia Corporation; c2006. Podcasting; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; [2 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.webopedia.com/.

11. Other named parts of books on the Internet

McCarthy D, Blumenthal D. Committed to safety: ten case studies on reducing harm to patients [Internet]. [New York]: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Apr. Case study 3, Promoting high reliability surgery and perinatal care through improved teamwork and communication at Kaiser Permanente; [cited 2006 Nov 7]; p. 18-26. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/McCarthy_safetycasestudies_923.pdf

Beers MH, Jones TV, Berkwits M, Kaplan JL, Porter R, editors. The Merck manual of health & aging [Internet]. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; c2005. Section 2, Chapter 5, Maintaining good nutrition; [cited 2006 Nov 7]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_ha/sec2/ch05/ch05a.html

American Academy of Pain Medicine; American Pain Society. The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain: a consensus statement [Internet]. Glenview (IL): American Academy of Pain Medicine; c1997. Part 4, Current information and experience suggest that many commonly held assumptions need modification; [cited 2006 Nov 7]; p. 2. Available from: http://www.painmed.org/productpub/statements/pdfs/opioids.pdf

12. Other unnamed parts of books on the Internet

Prescription drugs: abuse and addiction [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse (US); 2001 Jul. Trends in prescription drug abuse; [cited 2006 Nov 7]; p. 5. Available from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRPrescription.pdf

McCarthy D, Blumenthal D. Committed to safety: ten case studies on reducing harm to patients [Internet]. [New York]: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Apr. Methods; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. 70. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/McCarthy_safetycasestudies_923.pdf

AHFS consumer medication Information [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc.; ©2008. Protriptyline; [revised 2007 Aug 1; reviewed 2007 Aug 1; cited 2008 Oct 2]; [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a604025.html

PDR family guide to prescription drugs [Internet]. Montvale (NJ): Thomson Healthcare, Inc.; 2007. Tetracycline; [2007 Jan 22; cited 2009 Apr 2]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.acquirecontent.com/titles/pdr-family-guide-to-prescription-drugs Requires license to access.

13. Parts of a book not in English

Harpes JP, Milmeister JC, editors. La recherche sur les embryons [Internet]. Luxembourg: Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg; 2004. Partie 3.4, Le clonage therapeutique; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. 9. Available from: http://www.cne.public.lu/publications/avis/2002_2_2002_3_2003_1.pdf#search=%22%22la%20recherche%20sur%20les%20embryons%22%20%2Bcne%22 French.

Zieger K. Die Bedeutung der deutschen Arztevereine fur das wissenschaftliche Leben, die medizinische Versorgung und soziale Belange der Stadt St. Petersburg von 1819-1914 [dissertation on the Internet]. Leipzig (Germany): Universitat Leipzig, Karl-Sudhoff-Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften; 2000. Tabelle 1, Verteilung der deutschsprachigen Bevolkerung auf die einzelnen Stadtteile von St. Petersburg und die Gesamtentwicklung 1869-1910; [cited 2006 Nov 3]; p. 18. Available from: http://www.vifaost.de/w/pdf/zieger-aerzte.pdf German.

with translation

Harpes JP, Milmeister JC, editors. La recherche sur les embryons [Embryonic research] [Internet]. Luxembourg: Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg; 2004. Partie 3.4, Le clonage therapeutique [Part 3.4, Therapeutic cloning]; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. 9. Available from: http://www.cne.public.lu/publications/avis/2002_2_2002_3_2003_1.pdf#search=%22%22la%20recherche%20sur%20les%20embryons%22%20%2Bcne%22 French.

14. Parts of a book on the Internet with equal text in two or more languages

Robinson A, compiler. Veterinary public health and control of zoonoses in developing countries = Sante publique veterinaire et controle des zoonoses dans les pays en developpement = Salud publica veterinaria y control de zoonosis en Paises en Desarrollo [Internet]. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2003. [Part] A, Veterinary public health in the 21st century = La sante publique veterinaire au XXIeme siecle = Salud publica veterinaria en el siglo XXI; [cited 2006 Nov 17]; [about 6 screens each]. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4962t/y4962t01.htm#bm1..1.3.1 ; http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4962t/y4962t03.htm#bm3..1.3.1 ; http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4962t/y4962t05.htm#bm5..1.3.1 English, French, Spanish.

15. Parts of a book on the Internet with date of update/revision

A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2005. Ear barotrauma; [updated 2006 Oct 20; cited 2006 Nov 16]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001064.htm

Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000. [Figure], A patient with rather dysplastic fibulas due to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; [updated 2006 May 24; cited 2006 Nov 15]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.rad.washington.edu/mskbook/dysplasia.html

MedlinePlus health topics [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); [updated 2006 May 11]. Alzheimer's disease; [reviewed 2006 Oct 25; updated 2006 Dec 22; cited 2006 Dec 29]; [about 8 p.]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/alzheimersdisease.html

C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Contributions to Books on the Internet

The general format for a contribution to a book on the Internet, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a contribution to a book on the
Internet.

Examples of Citations to Contributions to Books on the Internet

Contributions are found when a book has an overall editor or editors and the individual chapters or other components of the book are written by various authors, usually called contributors. One or more of the editors may also be contributing authors. See also Chapter 2D Contributions to Books for additional examples of contributors to books in print or in microform (microfilm, microfiche).

Because a reference should start with the individual or organization responsible for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a contribution with the author and title of the contribution, followed by the word "In:" and information about the entire book.

The primary difference between citing a contribution to a print book and one on the Internet is in expressing the location (pagination) of the contribution. Unless an Internet book is in PDF (Portable Document Format), standard page numbers are usually not available. For non-PDF books:

  • Give location as the total extent of the contribution.
  • Calculate extent by the best means possible, in terms of the number of print pages, screens, paragraphs, or bytes, and place the total in square brackets. Screen size, font used, and printers vary greatly, but the purpose is to give an indication of the length of the part.
  • Use the word "about" before the length indicator when the number is calculated.

Medical texts frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as contributions using the instructions presented here. Consult the original publication and cite the chart or other item from there.

Contributions to a part of a book on the Internet, such as a table or figure, may be cited as individual items. See Chapter 22B Parts of Books on the Internet and Example 24 for instructions.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Contributions to Books on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Contributions to Books on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Contributions to Books on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Connective Phrase (R) | Book Information (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author of a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize names and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Organizations as author.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Title of a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the chapter or other contribution as it appears in the original document, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

Connective Phrase for a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Connective Phrase

  • Place a space and the word "In" after the title of the contribution
  • Follow "In" with a colon and a space

Date of Citation for a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the contribution to a book was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation.

Location (Pagination) for a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

For books with standard page numbers such as those in PDF
  • Begin location with "p." followed by a space
  • Enter the page number or numbers on which the contribution appears. Examples: p. 438 and p. 663-4.
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: p. S10-8.
  • End page information with a period
For books without page numbers
  • Give location as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes on which the contribution resides, whichever is most practical; precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 15 screens]
  • If the contribution is printed out, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 10 p.]
  • End location information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Roman numerals for page numbers.

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Contribution paginated separately.

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No page numbers appear on the pages of the contribution.

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Optional chapter number for a contribution.

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Contribution is a video clip, videocast, or podcast.

Availability for a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the contribution in its entirety; no not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • Use the URL for the entire book only if the contribution does not have its own URL
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs.

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URLs not directly addressable.

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Multiple URLs.

Language for a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of contribution if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Contributions appearing in more than one language.

Notes for a Contribution to a Book on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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DOIs.

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System requirements.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Contributions to Books on the Internet

1. Standard reference to a contributed chapter of an Internet book

Andreeff M, Goodrich DW, Pardee AB. Cell proliferation and differentiation. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6 [Internet]. Hamilton (ON): B.C. Decker Inc.; c2003 [cited 2006 Nov 7]. [about 41 p.]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=cmed6.chapter.590

Shrader-Frechette K. Ethical issues in environmental and occupational health. In: Jennings B, Kahn J, Mastroianni A, Parker LS, editors. Ethics and public health: model curriculum [Internet]. Washington: Association of Schools of Public Health; 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 159-92. Available from: http://www.asph.org/UserFiles/EthicsCurriculum.pdf

Moore A, Moore J, Fowler S. Faculty development for the Net Generation. In: Oblinger DG, Oblinger JL, editors. Educating the Net Generation [Internet]. Boulder (CO): EDUCAUSE; c2005 [updated 2006 Jun 15; cited 2006 Nov 17]. [about 9 p.]. Available from: http://www.educause.edu/FacultyDevelopmentfortheNetGeneration/6071

2. Contribution to an Internet book with optional full first names for authors and editors

Andreeff, Michael; Goodrich, David W.; Pardee, Arthur B. Cell proliferation and differentiation. In: Kufe, Donald W.; Pollock, Raphael E.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Bast, Robert C., Jr.; Gansler, Ted S.; Holland, James F.; Frei, Emil 3rd., editors. Cancer medicine 6 [Internet]. Hamilton (ON): B.C. Decker Inc.; c2003 [cited 2006 Nov 7]. [about 41 p.]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=cmed6.chapter.590

3. Contribution to an Internet book with optional limit to the number of authors

Mouchawar J, Taplin S, Ichikawa L, et al. Late-stage breast cancer among women with recent negative screening mammography: do clinical encounters offer opportunity for earlier detection? In: Vogt TM, Wagner EH, editors. Health care systems as research platforms: the cancer research network [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Oxford University Press; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 39-46. Available from: http://jncimono.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/2005/35/39

or

Mouchawar J, Taplin S, Ichikawa L, and others. Late-stage breast cancer among women with recent negative screening mammography: do clinical encounters offer opportunity for earlier detection? In: Vogt TM, Wagner EH, editors. Health care systems as research platforms: the cancer research network [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Oxford University Press; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 39-46. Available from: http://jncimono.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/2005/35/39

4. Contribution to an Internet book with authors having a family designation of rank

Schmeck H Jr. How genetic disorders are inherited. In: Blazing a genetic trail: families and scientists join in seeking the flawed genes that cause disease [Internet]. Chevy Chase (MD): Howard Hughes Medical Institute; c1991 [updated 2002 Spring; cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 4 p.]. Available from: http://www.hhmi.org/genetictrail/e100.html

5. Contribution to an Internet book with author names having a particle or prefix (give as found in the publication)

de Marcas J. Aspects of serials management in Israeli academic libraries. In: 66th IFLA Council and General Conference [Internet]; 2000 Aug 13-18; Jerusalem, Israel. The Hague (Netherlands): International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; [revised 2000 Jul 10; cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 10 p.]. Available from: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla66/papers/085-144e.htm

McGovern TW, Barkley TM. Botanical dermatology. In: Drugge R, Dunn HA, editors. Electronic textbook of dermatology [Internet]. [place unknown]: International Dermatology Society, Inc.; c1995-2000 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. [about 59 p.]. Available from: http://telemedicine.org/stamford.htm

del Carmen Rios M, Morales JR. Family planning and pregnancy. In: Bartlett JG, Cheever LW, Johnson MP, Paauw DS, editors. A guide to primary care of people with HIV/AIDS [Internet]. 2004 ed. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau; 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 97-104. Available from: ftp://ftp.hrsa.gov/hab/PCARE04.pdf

Conley D, Barnes J, Lague R, O'Brien K, Nur A. Aged care and disability services. In: Condon J, Warman G, Arnold L, editors. The health and welfare of Territorians [Internet]. Casuarina (AU): Northern Territory Government (AU), Department of Health and Community Services, Territory Health Services, Epidemiology Branch; c2001 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 171-8. Available from: http://www.nt.gov.au/health/health_gains/epidemiology/welfare_territorians.pdf

Marcus M, Van Aken H. Prevention of local anaesthetic toxicity. In: Gatt SP, Pybus A, editors. Hypertextbook of regional anaesthesia for obstetrics: an international perspective [Internet]. [place unknown]: MANBIT Technologies; [2000?] [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.manbit.com/oa/oaindex.htm by selecting Marcus from the Author Index.

van Zyl G. Laboratory findings. In: Kamps BS, Hoffmann C, Preiser W, editors. Influenza report 2006 [Internet]. [Paris]: Flying Publisher; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 12 p.]. Available from: http://www.influenzareport.com/ir/lab.htm

6. Contribution to an Internet book with authors having compound last names

Shrader-Frechette K. Ethical issues in environmental and occupational health. In: Jennings B, Kahn J, Mastroianni A, Parker LS, editors. Ethics and public health: model curriculum [Internet]. Washington: Association of Schools of Public Health; 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 159-92. Available from: http://www.asph.org/UserFiles/EthicsCurriculum.pdf

Mouchawar J, Taplin S, Ichikawa L, Barlow WE, Geiger AM, Weinmann S, Gilbert J, Manos MM, Ulcickas Yood M. Late-stage breast cancer among women with recent negative screening mammography: do clinical encounters offer opportunity for earlier detection? In: Vogt TM, Wagner EH, editors. Health care systems as research platforms: the cancer research network [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Oxford University Press; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 39-46. Available from: http://jncimono.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/2005/35/39

7. Contribution to an Internet book with author affiliation included

for all authors

Huntley A (Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA), Drugge R (New York University, New York, NY). Diabetes in skin disease. In: Drugge R, Dunn HA, editors. The electronic textbook of dermatology [Internet]. [place unknown]: Internet Dermatology Society, Inc.; c1995-2000 [cited 2006 Nov 17]. [about 27 screens]. Available from: http://telemedicine.org/stamford.htm

for only the first author

Mouchawar J (Colorado Clinical Research Unit, Kaiser Permanente, Boulder, CO. judy.mouchawar@kp.org), Taplin S, Ichikawa L, Barlow WE, Geiger AM, Weinmann S, Gilbert J, Manos MM, Ulcickas Yood M. Late-stage breast cancer among women with recent negative screening mammography: do clinical encounters offer opportunity for earlier detection? In: Vogt TM, Wagner EH, editors. Health care systems as research platforms: the cancer research network [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Oxford University Press; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 39-46. Available from: http://jncimono.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/2005/35/39

8. Contribution to an Internet book with title having a subtitle

Mathios AD, Ippolito P. Health claims in food advertising and labeling: disseminating nutrition information to consumers. In: Frazao E, editor. America's eating habits: changes and consequences [Internet]. Washington: Department of Agriculture (US), Economic Research Service, Food and Rural Economics Division; 1999 May [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [106 KB]. Available from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib750/aib750k.pdf

9. Contribution to an Internet book with title beginning with a lower-case letter or containing a special symbol or character

Anderson P, Kimble J. mRNA and translation. In: Riddle DL, Blumenthal T, Meyer BJ, Priess JR, editors. C. elegans 2 [Internet]. Plainview (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; c1997 [cited 2006 Nov 16]. [about 25 screens]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=ce2.chapter.266

Wortmann R. Defects in ß-oxidation. In: Koopman WJ, Moreland LW, editors. Arthritis & allied conditions [Internet]. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [2 paragraphs]. Available from: http://gateway.ut.ovid.com/gw1/ovidweb.cgi Subscription required to view.

or

Wortmann R. Defects in beta-oxidation. In: Koopman WJ, Moreland LW, editors. Arthritis & allied conditions [Internet]. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [2 paragraphs]. Available from: http://gateway.ut.ovid.com/gw1/ovidweb.cgi Subscription required to view.

10. Contribution to an Internet book with a non-English title

Cannavo G, Favati A, Mule D. Mobbing aspetti medico-legali. In: Il mobbing [Internet]. Pisa (Italy): Melchiorre Gioia; 2001 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://www.melchiorregioia.it/2006/TAGETE_file/giurispr.%20mobbing.htm Italian.

with translation

Cannavo G, Favati A, Mule D. Mobbing aspetti medico-legali [Medical-legal aspects of mobbing]. In: Il mobbing [Mobbing] [Internet]. Pisa (Italy): Melchiorre Gioia; 2001 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://www.melchiorregioia.it/2006/TAGETE_file/giurispr.%20mobbing.htm Italian.

11. Contribution to an Internet book with an edition statement

Neath SX. Anaphylaxis. In: Barkin RM, Rosen P, editors. Rosen & Barkin's 5-minute emergency medicine consult [Internet]. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2007 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 8 screens]. Available from: http://gateway.ut.ovid.com/gw1/ovidweb.cgi Subscription required to view.

Mullins M. Genetic methods: conventions for naming zebrafish genes. In: Westerfield M, editor. The zebrafish book: a guide for the laboratory use of zebrafish Danio (Brachydanio) rerio [Internet]. 4th ed. Eugene (OR): University of Oregon Press; 2000 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://zfin.org/zf_info/zfbook/cont.html#cont7

Hahn SM, Glatstein E. Principles of radiation therapy. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Isselbacher KJ, editors. Harrison's online [Internet]. 16th ed. Columbus (OH): McGraw-Hill Companies; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 16 p.]. Available from: http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=61705

12. Contribution to an Internet book with a government agency as publisher

Mathios AD, Ippolito P. Health claims in food advertising and labeling: disseminating nutrition information to consumers. In: Frazao E, editor. America's eating habits: changes and consequences [Internet]. Washington: Department of Agriculture (US), Economic Research Service, Food and Rural Economics Division; 1999 May [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [106 KB]. Available from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib750/aib750k.pdf

13. Contribution to an Internet book with subordinate division to publisher

Boychuk RB. Case 10, Drooling, stridor, and a barking cough: croup?? In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro RM, editors. Radiology cases in pediatric emergency medicine [Internet]. Vol. 1. Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics; 1994 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 7 screens]. Available from: http://www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v1c10.html

14. Contribution to an Internet book with date of update/revision

Moore A, Moore J, Fowler S. Faculty development for the Net Generation. In: Oblinger DG, Oblinger JL, editors. Educating the Net Generation [Internet]. Boulder (CO): EDUCAUSE; c2005 [updated 2006 Jun 15; cited 2006 Nov 17]. [about 9 p.]. Available from: http://www.educause.edu/FacultyDevelopmentfortheNetGeneration/6071

Schmeck H Jr. How genetic disorders are inherited. In: Blazing a genetic trail: families and scientists join in seeking the flawed genes that cause disease [Internet]. Chevy Chase (MD): Howard Hughes Medical Institute; c1991 [updated 2002 Spring; cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 4 p.]. Available from: http://www.hhmi.org/genetictrail/e100.html

de Marcas J. Aspects of serials management in Israeli academic libraries. In: 66th IFLA Council and General Conference [Internet]; 2000 Aug 13-18; Jerusalem, Israel. The Hague (Netherlands): International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; [revised 2000 May 30; cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 10 p.]. Available from: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla66/papers/085-144e.htm

15. Contribution to an Internet book with location (pagination) expressed as standard page numbers

Shrader-Frechette K. Ethical issues in environmental and occupational health. In: Jennings B, Kahn J, Mastroianni A, Parker LS, editors. Ethics and public health: model curriculum [Internet]. Washington: Association of Schools of Public Health; 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 159-92. Available from: http://www.asph.org/UserFiles/EthicsCurriculum.pdf

16. Contribution to an Internet book with location (pagination) expressed as other than standard page numbers

Schmeck H Jr. How genetic disorders are inherited. In: Blazing a genetic trail: families and scientists join in seeking the flawed genes that cause disease [Internet]. Chevy Chase (MD): Howard Hughes Medical Institute; c1991 [updated 2002 Spring; cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 4 p.]. Available from: http://www.hhmi.org/genetictrail/e100.html

Marcus M, Van Aken H. Prevention of local anaesthetic toxicity. In: Gatt SP, Pybus A, editors. Hypertextbook of regional anaesthesia for obstetrics: an international perspective [Internet]. [place unknown]: MANBIT Technologies; [2000?] [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.manbit.com/oa/oaindex.htm by selecting Marcus from the Author Index.

Wortmann R. Defects in ß-oxidation. In: Koopman WJ, Moreland LW, editors. Arthritis & allied conditions [Internet]. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [2 paragraphs]. Available from: http://gateway.ut.ovid.com/gw1/ovidweb.cgi Subscription required to view.

Khan MK, Zhang J, Tian L. Protecting biometric data for personal identification. In: Advances in biometric person authentication [Internet]. SINOBIOMETRICS 2004: 5th Chinese Conference on Biometric Recognition; 2004 Dec 13-14; Guangzhou, China. Berlin: Springer; 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [245 KB]. Available from: http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/mcu60u211xf6w90w/?p=8031e82410a44d8d867641ae718de705&pi=71 Subscription required to view.

Chorba T, Tao G, Irwin KL. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Litwin MS, Saigal CS, editors. Urologic diseases in America [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US); 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. Chapter 9. Available from: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/statistics/uda/UTI_STD.pdf#page=91

17. Contribution to an Internet book that is part of a series

Mathios AD, Ippolito P. Health claims in food advertising and labeling: disseminating nutrition information to consumers. In: Frazao E, editor. America's eating habits: changes and consequences [Internet]. Washington: Department of Agriculture (US), Economic Research Service, Food and Rural Economics Division; 1999 May [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [106 KB]. (Agriculture information bulletin; no. AIB750). Available from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib750/aib750k.pdf

Chorba T, Tao G, Irwin KL. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Litwin MS, Saigal CS, editors. Urologic diseases in America [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US); 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. Chapter 9. (NIH publication; no. 04-5512). Available from: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/statistics/uda/UTI_STD.pdf#page=91

18. Contribution to an Internet book with a URL not directly addressable

Marcus M, Van Aken H. Prevention of local anaesthetic toxicity. In: Gatt SP, Pybus A, editors. Hypertextbook of regional anaesthesia for obstetrics: an international perspective [Internet]. [place unknown]: MANBIT Technologies; [2000?] [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.manbit.com/oa/oaindex.htm by selecting Marcus from the Author Index.

19. Contribution to an Internet book with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Mouchawar J, Taplin S, Ichikawa L, Barlow WE, Geiger AM, Weinmann S, Gilbert J, Manos MM, Ulcickas Yood M. Late-stage breast cancer among women with recent negative screening mammography: do clinical encounters offer opportunity for earlier detection? In: Vogt TM, Wagner EH, editors. Health care systems as research platforms: the cancer research network [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Oxford University Press; 2005 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 39-46. Available from: http://jncimono.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/2005/35/39 doi: 10.1093/jncimonographs/lgi036

20. Contribution to an Internet book with system requirements included

Levin B. Colorectal cancer. In: Dale DC, Antman K, Atkinson JP, Feldman M, Gibbons RJ, Haynes RB, Henrich JB, Henrich WL, Holtzman MJ, Lebwohl MG, Levinson W, Loriaux DL, Ruddy S, Wolinsky JS, editors. ACP medicine [Internet]. New York: Web MD Inc.; c2005 [updated 2006 Jan; cited 2006 Nov 20]. [16 p.]. Available from: http://www.acpmedicine.com/acp_sampleChapters.htm System Requirements: Netscape Navigator 7.0 (or later) or Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 (or later); browser must be Java-enabled.

21. Contribution to an Internet book with a supplemental note

Neath SX. Anaphylaxis. In: Barkin RM, Rosen P, editors. Rosen & Barkin's 5-minute emergency medicine consult [Internet]. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2007 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 8 screens]. Available from: http://gateway.ut.ovid.com/gw1/ovidweb.cgi Subscription required to view.

Shrader-Frechette K. Ethical issues in environmental and occupational health. In: Jennings B, Kahn J, Mastroianni A, Parker LS, editors. Ethics and public health: model curriculum [Internet]. Washington: Association of Schools of Public Health; 2003 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. p. 159-92. Available from: http://www.asph.org/UserFiles/EthicsCurriculum.pdf This project was supported under a cooperative agreement from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) through grant number 1D-38AH10001-05.

22. Contribution to an Internet book in one volume of a multivolume set

Boychuk RB. Case 10, Drooling, stridor, and a barking cough: croup?? In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro RM, editors. Radiology cases in pediatric emergency medicine [Internet]. Vol. 1. Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics; 1994 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 7 screens]. Available from: http://www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v1c10.html

23. Contributed paper in a conference proceedings on the Internet

Khan MK, Zhang J, Tian L. Protecting biometric data for personal identification. In: Advances in biometric person authentication [Internet]. SINOBIOMETRICS 2004: 5th Chinese Conference on Biometric Recognition; 2004 Dec 13-14; Guangzhou, China. Berlin: Springer; 2004 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. [245 KB]. Available from: http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/mcu60u211xf6w90w/?p=8031e82410a44d8d867641ae718de705&pi=71

de Marcas J. Aspects of serials management in Israeli academic libraries. In: 66th IFLA Council and General Conference [Internet]; 2000 Aug 13-18; Jerusalem, Israel. The Hague (Netherlands): International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; [revised 2000 May 30; cited 2006 Nov 20]. [about 10 p.]. Available from: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla66/papers/085-144e.htm

24. Part of a contributed chapter on the Internet

Margolese RG, Hortobagyi GN, Buchholz TA. Neoplasms of the breast. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6 [Internet]. Hamilton (ON): B.C. Decker Inc.; c2003. Figure 121-13, Sinus histiocytosis; [cited 2006 Nov 7]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=cmed6.figgrp.30804