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CD69 CD69 molecule [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 969, updated on 13-May-2022


Official Symbol
CD69provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
CD69 moleculeprovided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000110848 MIM:107273; AllianceGenome:HGNC:1694
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
AIM; EA1; MLR-3; CLEC2C; GP32/28; BL-AC/P26
This gene encodes a member of the calcium dependent lectin superfamily of type II transmembrane receptors. Expression of the encoded protein is induced upon activation of T lymphocytes, and may play a role in proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may act to transmit signals in natural killer cells and platelets. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Biased expression in bone marrow (RPKM 55.9), lymph node (RPKM 41.3) and 13 other tissues See more
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Genomic context

See CD69 in Genome Data Viewer
Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
110 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 12 NC_000012.12 (9752486..9760901, complement)
110 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 12 NC_060936.1 (9638644..9647057, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (9905082..9913497, complement)

Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr12.520 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 11505 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr12.528 Neighboring gene killer cell lectin like receptor F1 Neighboring gene GCNA pseudogene 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?


EBI GWAS Catalog

Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis find that over 40 loci affect risk of type 1 diabetes.
EBI GWAS Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 significantly inhibits CD69 expression in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T cells in vitro and may also affect T-cell activation in vivo PubMed
Nef nef Cells expressing HIV-1 Nef from long-term non-progressors and progressive infection patients induce higher surface levels of CD69 and CD25 than cells producing HIV-2 or SIV Nef PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef protein with an intact SH3-binding domain expressed in the productively infected monocyte-derived macrophages is required for the enhanced expression of CD69 on the cell surface PubMed
nef Functional Nef is required for the activation of resting CD4+ T cells by upregulating CD69 expression on cell surface PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef downregulates CD69 in Jurkat cells in a concentration-dependent manner PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef blocks a receptor-proximal event in CD3 signaling by downregulating CD69 expression on the cell surface; mutations at amino acid residues P72, P75, R105 and R106 in Nef disrupts the ability of Nef to block CD3 signaling PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat binds to a cell surface receptor and activates a cell surface-mediated signal pathway in K562 cells, leading to the activation of NF-kappa B and the induction of CD69 PubMed
Vpr vpr Human endothelial cell (EC)-stimulated virus-producing cells (p24(high) T cells) are activated to sometimes express CD69 (but not CD25, HLA-DR, VLA-1, or effector cytokines) in the presence of HIV-1 Vpr PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information



Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables carbohydrate binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
enables identical protein binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
enables transmembrane signaling receptor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in cellular response to xenobiotic stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
Component Evidence Code Pubs
is_active_in external side of plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
located_in integral component of plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
part_of protein-containing complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info

General protein information

Preferred Names
early activation antigen CD69
C-type lectin domain family 2, member C
CD69 antigen (p60, early T-cell activation antigen)
activation inducer molecule (AIM/CD69)
early T-cell activation antigen p60
early lymphocyte activation antigen
leukocyte surface antigen Leu-23

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001781.2NP_001772.1  early activation antigen CD69

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001772.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC007068, Z22576
    Consensus CDS
    ENSP00000228434.3, ENST00000228434.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    CLECT_NK_receptors_like; C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in natural killer cell receptors (NKRs)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 110 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    9752486..9760901 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0


  1. NC_060936.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    9638644..9647057 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NR_026671.1: Suppressed sequence

    NR_026671.1: This RefSeq was temporarily suppressed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.
  2. NR_026672.1: Suppressed sequence

    NR_026672.1: This RefSeq was temporarily suppressed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.