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VEGFB vascular endothelial growth factor B [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7423, updated on 8-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
VEGFBprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
vascular endothelial growth factor Bprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:12681
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000173511 MIM:601398
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
VRF; VEGFL
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)/VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) family. The VEGF family members regulate the formation of blood vessels and are involved in endothelial cell physiology. This member is a ligand for VEGFR-1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1) and NRP-1 (neuropilin-1). Studies in mice showed that this gene was co-expressed with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and the encoded protein specifically controlled endothelial uptake of fatty acids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Expression
Broad expression in fat (RPKM 106.2), heart (RPKM 26.1) and 23 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See VEGFB in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11q13.1
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 11 NC_000011.10 (64234584..64239264)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (64002056..64006736)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene nudix hydrolase 22 Neighboring gene DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C4 Neighboring gene FKBP prolyl isomerase 2 Neighboring gene protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 14B Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105369340

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates members of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family (PDGFA, VEGFA,VEGFB, VEGFC) in mammary epithelial cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat enhances vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of fibroblasts and human endothelial cells, which correlates with upregulation of CD31, CD34, SMA, VEGF, b-FGF, and cyclin D1 expression PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat enhances Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vIL-6-induced cell proliferation, cellular transformation, vascular tube formation, and VEGF production in tumor cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
  • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, conserved biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Heart Development, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Heart Development, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway has been largely adapted from an article by Deepak Srivastava, Cell. 2006 Sep 22;126(6):1037-48. In this pathway are known transcription factors, miRNAs and regulatory proteins that impa...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
  • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
  • Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2
  • VEGF binds to VEGFR leading to receptor dimerization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGF binds to VEGFR leading to receptor dimerization, organism-specific biosystemThe binding of VEGF ligands to VEGFR receptors in the cell membrane induces dimerization and activation of the latter, initiating intracellular signaling cascades that result in proliferation, surviv...
  • VEGF ligand-receptor interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGF ligand-receptor interactions, organism-specific biosystemThe VEGF family is encoded by seven genes (VEGF-A, B, C, D, E: PLGF (Placenta Growth Factor)-1, 2). Six isoforms of VEGF-A protein, containing 121, 145, 165, 183, 189, and 206 amino acid residues, an...
  • VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem
    VEGFR1 specific signals
  • miR-148a/miR-31/FIH1/HIF1α-Notch signaling in glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miR-148a/miR-31/FIH1/HIF1α-Notch signaling in glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemmiR-148a and miR-31 target the factor inhibiting hypoxia (FIH1) to promote downstream HIF1? and Notch signaling

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
chemoattractant activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
heparin binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein homodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
angiogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cardiac muscle contraction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
coronary vasculature development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
induction of positive chemotaxis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
platelet degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive chemotaxis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of angiogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mast cell chemotaxis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein O-linked glycosylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to hypoxia IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
sprouting angiogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
vascular endothelial growth factor B
Names
VEGF-related factor

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029823.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..9681
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001243733.1NP_001230662.1  vascular endothelial growth factor B isoform VEGFB-167 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230662.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (VEGFB-167) lacks a segment in the 3' coding region, resulting in a downstream stop codon, compared to variant VEGFB-186. The resulting isoform (VEGFB-167, also known as VRF167) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform VEGFB-186. This isoform contains the heparin binding domain and is mostly sequestered in the extracellular matrix.
    Source sequence(s)
    AP001453, BG031449, BM694361, BU730521, U48801
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58144.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P49765
    Related
    ENSP00000401550.2, ENST00000426086.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00141
    Location:45126
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
  2. NM_003377.4NP_003368.1  vascular endothelial growth factor B isoform VEGFB-186 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003368.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (VEGFB-186) encodes the longer isoform (VEGFB-186, also known as VRF186). This isoform lacks the heparin binding domain and is secreted freely from cells.
    Source sequence(s)
    AP001453, BC008818, BM694361, BU730521
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8062.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P49765
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q7LAP4
    Related
    ENSP00000311127.2, ENST00000309422.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00141
    Location:45126
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    cl28111
    Location:108188
    Marek_A; Marek's disease glycoprotein A

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    64234584..64239264
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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