U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Send to:

Choose Destination

TUBA3C tubulin alpha 3c [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7278, updated on 17-Jun-2024


Official Symbol
TUBA3Cprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
tubulin alpha 3cprovided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000198033 MIM:602528; AllianceGenome:HGNC:12408
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TUBA2; bA408E5.3
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene is an alpha tubulin gene that encodes a protein 99% identical to the mouse testis-specific Tuba3 and Tuba7 gene products. This gene is located in the 13q11 region, which is associated with the genetic diseases Clouston hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and Kabuki syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Restricted expression toward testis (RPKM 241.8) See more
Try the new Gene table
Try the new Transcript table

Genomic context

See TUBA3C in Genome Data Viewer
Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 13 NC_000013.11 (19173772..19181824, complement)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 13 NC_060937.1 (18369346..18377395, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 13 NC_000013.10 (19747912..19755964, complement)

Chromosome 13 - NC_000013.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 52, pseudogene Neighboring gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 4 pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene Putative uncharacterized protein LOC645739 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124900335 Neighboring gene paraspeckle component 1 pseudogene 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


EBI GWAS Catalog

A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance.
EBI GWAS Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env The mRNA expression levels for alpha-tubulin, TRADD, IFN-gamma R2, GAS1, MADD, NF-kappaB, I-kappa B, 14-3-3 protein, APaf1, PARP, IGF-1 receptor, RB1, Rb2/p130, ARC, and caspase 6 are upregulated in human neuronal cells after treatment with HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env The binding of HIV-1 gp120 to CD4+-permissive cells increases the level of acetylated alpha-tubulin in a CD4-dependent manner; overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibits the acetylation of alpha-tubulin and prevents HIV-1-cell fusion PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Expression of HIV-1 gp41 cytoplasmic domain reduces acetylated tubulin alpha and interferes with virus-cell fusion PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Rev rev Rev acts to depolymerize microtubules that are formed by tubulin, an effect that is observed during HIV-1 infection PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat K29A, K50R, and K51R lysine mutations downregulate the proportion of soluble tubulin in cells, while the majority of other lysine mutations upregulate the percentage of soluble tubulin compared with the wild-type PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat (specifically, amino acids 38-72), enhances tubulin polymerization and triggers the mitochondrial pathway to induce T cell apoptosis as shown in vitro by the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat causes a dramatic decrease in alpha-tubulin staining, which indicates disruption of the cytoskeleton organization in human intestinal epithelial cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 36-39) binds tubulin alpha/beta dimers and polymerized microtubules leading to the alteration of microtubule dynamics and activation of a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway that is facilitated by the Bcl-2 relative Bim PubMed
integrase gag-pol Co-immunoprecipitation shows interaction of HIV-1 IN with alpha-tubulin PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information


Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables GTP binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
enables hydrolase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
enables metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
enables structural constituent of cytoskeleton IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in microtubule cytoskeleton organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
involved_in mitotic cell cycle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
Component Evidence Code Pubs
is_active_in cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
is_active_in microtubule IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
located_in microtubule cytoskeleton IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
located_in nucleus HDA PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
tubulin alpha-3C chain
Alpha-tubulin 3D
Tubulin alpha-3D chain
alpha-tubulin 2
alpha-tubulin 3C
alpha-tubulin 3C/D
tubulin alpha-2 chain
tubulin alpha-3C/D chain
tubulin, alpha 2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

NEW Try the new Transcript table

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_006001.3NP_005992.1  tubulin alpha-3C chain

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005992.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AA412719, AL139327, DB026664, DB524026
    Consensus CDS
    A6NJQ0, P0DPH7, P0DPH8, Q13748, Q5W099, Q6PEY3, Q96F18
    A8JZY9, Q1ZYQ1
    ENSP00000382982.3, ENST00000400113.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PTZ00335; tubulin alpha chain; Provisional

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000013.11 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    19173772..19181824 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0


  1. NC_060937.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    18369346..18377395 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_079836.1: Suppressed sequence

    NM_079836.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.