Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

RARG retinoic acid receptor gamma [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5916, updated on 10-Oct-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
RARGprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
retinoic acid receptor gammaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9866
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000172819 MIM:180190
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
RARC; NR1B3
Summary
This gene encodes a retinoic acid receptor that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) act as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators. When bound to ligands, RARs activate transcription by binding as heterodimers to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) found in the promoter regions of the target genes. In their unbound form, RARs repress transcription of their target genes. RARs are involved in various biological processes, including limb bud development, skeletal growth, and matrix homeostasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Expression
Broad expression in skin (RPKM 47.1), esophagus (RPKM 32.0) and 18 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See RARG in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
12q13.13
Exon count:
12
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 12 NC_000012.12 (53210566..53232256, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (53604350..53626040, complement)

Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 740 Neighboring gene integrin subunit beta 7 Neighboring gene major facilitator superfamily domain containing 5 Neighboring gene extra spindle pole bodies like 1, separase

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef induces loss of F-actin assembly and inhibits retinoid receptor-mediated transcription PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Activation of HOX genes during differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of HOX genes during differentiation, organism-specific biosystemHox genes encode proteins that contain the DNA-binding homeobox motif and control early patterning of segments in the embryo as well as later events in development (reviewed in Rezsohazy et al. 2015)...
  • Activation of anterior HOX genes in hindbrain development during early embryogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of anterior HOX genes in hindbrain development during early embryogenesis, organism-specific biosystemIn mammals, anterior Hox genes may be defined as paralog groups 1 to 4 (Natale et al. 2011), which are involved in development of the hindbrain through sequential expression in the rhombomeres, trans...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Endoderm Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Endoderm Differentiation, organism-specific biosystemModel depicting endoderm specification based on the literature and highly enriched gene expression profiles via comparison across dozens of independent induced and embryonic pluripotent stem cell lin...
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or t...
  • Mesodermal Commitment Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Mesodermal Commitment Pathway, organism-specific biosystemModel depicting mesodermal specification based on the literature and highly enriched gene expression profiles via comparison across dozens of independent induced and embryonic pluripotent stem cell l...
  • Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway, organism-specific biosystemA classic example of bifunctional transcription factors is the family of Nuclear Receptor (NR) proteins. These are DNA-binding transcription factors that bind certain hormones, vitamins, and other s...
  • Nuclear Receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nuclear Receptors, organism-specific biosystemNuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within the interior of cells that are responsible for sensing the presence of steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules. In response, th...
  • Nuclear Receptors in Lipid Metabolism and Toxicity, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nuclear Receptors in Lipid Metabolism and Toxicity, organism-specific biosystemNuclear receptors are transcription factors that are activated upon binding to its ligands. Initially, they had been classified as classic endocrine nuclear hormone receptors and orphan receptors. Ho...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by Retinoic Acid, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Retinoic Acid, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (retinol) can be metabolised into active retinoid metabolites that function either as a chromophore in vision or in regulating gene expression transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. ...
  • Vitamin A and Carotenoid Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Vitamin A and Carotenoid Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is about carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism. The initial version was created by the NuGO focusteam on Carotenoid metabolism. It was used to test a text mining workflow which added some ...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISM
Inferred from Sequence Model
more info
PubMed 
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nuclear receptor transcription coactivator activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
retinoid X receptor binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
signaling receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
steroid hormone receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transcription factor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
Harderian gland development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
anterior/posterior pattern specification IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
bone morphogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
canonical Wnt signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell differentiation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to leukemia inhibitory factor IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to retinoic acid IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
embryonic camera-type eye development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
embryonic eye morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
epithelium development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
face development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
gland development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
glandular epithelial cell development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
growth plate cartilage chondrocyte growth IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hormone-mediated signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
multicellular organism development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
multicellular organism growth IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
neural tube closure IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of programmed cell death ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
prostate gland epithelium morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cell size TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of myelination IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of myeloid cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lipid IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to retinoic acid IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to retinoic acid IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
trachea cartilage development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
RNA polymerase II transcription factor complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
integral component of membrane NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
nuclear chromatin ISA
Inferred from Sequence Alignment
more info
 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
transcription factor complex ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
retinoic acid receptor gamma
Names
RAR-gamma
nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group B member 3
retinoic acid nuclear receptor gamma variant 1
retinoic acid nuclear receptor gamma variant 2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029822.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5048..26688
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000966.6NP_000957.1  retinoic acid receptor gamma isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000957.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC072462, DA436501
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8850.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P13631
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K3H3
    Related
    ENSP00000388510.2, ENST00000425354.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06937
    Location:188418
    NR_LBD_RAR; The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    cd06964
    Location:85165
    NR_DBD_RAR; DNA-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  2. NM_001042728.3NP_001036193.1  retinoic acid receptor gamma isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001036193.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains an alternate 5' terminal exon compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from an alternate start codon, and a shorter isoform (2) with a distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK297277, AK316259, BC072462, DC294855
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS41790.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P13631
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    F1D8P1
    Related
    ENSP00000343698.5, ENST00000338561.9
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06937
    Location:177407
    NR_LBD_RAR; The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    cd06964
    Location:74154
    NR_DBD_RAR; DNA-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  3. NM_001243730.1NP_001230659.1  retinoic acid receptor gamma isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230659.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an exon containing the start codon used in variant 1. This results in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG, and an isoform (4) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK297023, AW002722, BC072462, DA436501
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58236.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P13631
    Related
    ENSP00000377947.2, ENST00000394426.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06937
    Location:116346
    NR_LBD_RAR; The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    cd06964
    Location:1393
    NR_DBD_RAR; DNA-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  4. NM_001243731.2NP_001230660.1  retinoic acid receptor gamma isoform 5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230660.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks two consecutive exons compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG, and an isoform (5) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK297110, BC072462
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B7Z4B4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06937
    Location:67297
    NR_LBD_RAR; The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    cl02596
    Location:144
    NR_DBD_like; DNA-binding domain of nuclear receptors is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  5. NM_001243732.2NP_001230661.1  retinoic acid receptor gamma isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230661.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains an alternate 5' terminal exon, and lacks another coding exon compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from an alternate start codon, and a shorter isoform (3) with a distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK297277, BC072462, DC294855
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58237.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P13631
    Related
    ENSP00000444335.1, ENST00000543726.1
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06937
    Location:166396
    NR_LBD_RAR; The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    cl02596
    Location:88146
    NR_DBD_like; DNA-binding domain of nuclear receptors is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109.20190905

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    53210566..53232256 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_024449113.1XP_024304881.1  retinoic acid receptor gamma isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06937
    Location:188418
    NR_LBD_RAR; The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    cd06964
    Location:85165
    NR_DBD_RAR; DNA-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  2. XM_024449112.1XP_024304880.1  retinoic acid receptor gamma isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06937
    Location:275505
    NR_LBD_RAR; The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    cd06964
    Location:172252
    NR_DBD_RAR; DNA-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
  3. XM_024449114.1XP_024304882.1  retinoic acid receptor gamma isoform X3

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06937
    Location:116346
    NR_LBD_RAR; The ligand binding domain (LBD) of retinoic acid receptor (RAR), a members of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    cd06964
    Location:1393
    NR_DBD_RAR; DNA-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
Support Center