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Ghrl ghrelin [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ]

Gene ID: 58991, updated on 14-May-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
Ghrlprovided by MGI
Official Full Name
ghrelinprovided by MGI
Primary source
MGI:MGI:1930008
See related
Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000064177
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Mus musculus
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Glires; Rodentia; Myomorpha; Muroidea; Muridae; Murinae; Mus; Mus
Also known as
Ghr; m46; MTLRP; MTLRPAP; 2210006E23Rik
Summary
This gene encodes a preproprotein that undergoes proteolytic processing to yield two bioactive peptides, ghrelin and obestatin. The hormone ghrelin plays a role in enhancing appetite and has numerous other biological functions that include stimulating the secretion of growth hormone (somatotropin) from the anterior pituitary gland. Obestatin is thought to be a hormone that functions in decreasing appetite. Mice lacking the encoded protein develop normally and exhibit no gross anatomical abnormalities. This gene encodes distinct isoforms, some or all of which may undergo similar proteolytic processing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
Expression
Restricted expression toward stomach adult (RPKM 203.4) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See Ghrl in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6 E3; 6 52.84 cM
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCm38.p4 (GCF_000001635.24) 6 NC_000072.6 (113716119..113719911, complement)
Build 37.2 previous assembly MGSCv37 (GCF_000001635.18) 6 NC_000072.5 (113666113..113669874, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000072.6Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2 Neighboring gene TatD DNase domain containing 2 Neighboring gene microRNA 7042 Neighboring gene SEC13 homolog, nuclear pore and COPII coat complex component Neighboring gene ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 2 Neighboring gene predicted gene 15083

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: Mouse ENCODE transcriptome data
  • Description: RNA profiling data sets generated by the Mouse ENCODE project.
  • BioProject: PRJNA66167
  • Publication: PMID 25409824
  • Analysis date: n/a

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Variation

Alleles

Alleles of this type are documented at Mouse Genome Informatics  (MGI)

Pathways from BioSystems

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by MGI

Function Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor binding ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
ghrelin receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
ghrelin receptor binding ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
growth hormone-releasing hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
growth hormone-releasing hormone activity ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
hormone activity ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
hormone activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein tyrosine kinase activator activity ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
actin polymerization or depolymerization ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
activation of MAPK activity ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
adult feeding behavior IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
decidualization ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
dendrite development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
dendrite development ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
energy homeostasis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
excitatory postsynaptic potential IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
gastric acid secretion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
gastric acid secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
gastric emptying ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
negative regulation of inflammatory response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of inflammatory response ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
negative regulation of insulin secretion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of insulin secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
negative regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
negative regulation of locomotion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of adipose tissue development ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of appetite IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of appetite IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of appetite IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
NOT positive regulation of appetite IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of bone development ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of corticotropin secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of cortisol secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of eating behavior ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of feeding behavior ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of gastric mucosal blood circulation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of gastro-intestinal system smooth muscle contraction ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of growth ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of growth hormone secretion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of growth hormone secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of growth rate ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of insulin secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of response to food ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of small intestinal transit ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of small intestine smooth muscle contraction ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of synapse assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of synapse assembly ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
postsynaptic modulation of chemical synaptic transmission ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
regulation of cell proliferation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
regulation of gastric motility ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
regulation of postsynapse organization ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
regulation of response to food IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of response to food ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
regulation of transmission of nerve impulse ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
response to estrogen ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
response to hormone ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
visual learning ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
axon ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
extracellular region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
glutamatergic synapse ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
appetite-regulating hormone
Names
growth hormone secretagogue
growth hormone-releasing peptide
motilin-related peptide
preproghrelin
proghrelin

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001286404.1NP_001273333.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 2 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273333.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 5' coding region compared to variant 1. This results in a shorter protein (isoform 2) compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK008658, AV079302, BY149645
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS85127.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9EQX0
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145096.1, ENSMUST00000204163.2
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:56114
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
    pfam04644
    Location:2550
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin
  2. NM_001286405.1NP_001273334.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 3 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273334.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and lacks an exon in the 3' coding region resulting in a frameshift, compared to variant 1. The encoded protein (isoform 3) is shorter than isoform 1 and has a distinct C-terminus. This isoform (3) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK008860, BC094911
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS85128.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9EQX0
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q811T4
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145366.1, ENSMUST00000203363.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam04644
    Location:2551
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin
  3. NM_001286406.1NP_001273335.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 4 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273335.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR and lacks an in-frame exon in the 5' coding region compared to variant 1. The encoded protein (isoform 4) is shorter than isoform 1. This isoform (4) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB111891, AK008860
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS85126.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9EQX0
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q7TSD1
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145514.1, ENSMUST00000203588.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:3676
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
  4. NM_021488.5NP_067463.2  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 1 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_067463.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC117596, AK008658, AV079302
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS20432.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9EQX0
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A2RSS9
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000069567.5, ENSMUST00000064993.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:57115
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
    pfam04644
    Location:2551
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin

RNA

  1. NR_138135.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks multiple exons and contains an alternate 5' terminal exon compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the predicted protein does not meet RefSeq quality criteria.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC117596, AV079302, CK137452

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Mus musculus Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCm38.p4 C57BL/6J

Genomic

  1. NC_000072.6 Reference GRCm38.p4 C57BL/6J

    Range
    113716119..113719911 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006506446.3XP_006506509.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006506509.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9EQX0
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A2RSS9
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145281.1, ENSMUST00000203770.2
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:57115
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
    pfam04644
    Location:2551
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin
  2. XM_006506447.3XP_006506510.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform X2

    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145046.1, ENSMUST00000204533.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:1252
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
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