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Ghrl ghrelin [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ]

Gene ID: 58991, updated on 27-Feb-2024

Summary

Official Symbol
Ghrlprovided by MGI
Official Full Name
ghrelinprovided by MGI
Primary source
MGI:MGI:1930008
See related
Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000064177 AllianceGenome:MGI:1930008
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Mus musculus
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Glires; Rodentia; Myomorpha; Muroidea; Muridae; Murinae; Mus; Mus
Also known as
Ghr; m46; MTLRP; MTLRPAP; 2210006E23Rik
Summary
This gene encodes a preproprotein that undergoes proteolytic processing to yield two bioactive peptides, ghrelin and obestatin. The hormone ghrelin plays a role in enhancing appetite and has numerous other biological functions that include stimulating the secretion of growth hormone (somatotropin) from the anterior pituitary gland. Obestatin is thought to be a hormone that functions in decreasing appetite. Mice lacking the encoded protein develop normally and exhibit no gross anatomical abnormalities. This gene encodes distinct isoforms, some or all of which may undergo similar proteolytic processing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
Expression
Restricted expression toward stomach adult (RPKM 203.4) See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See Ghrl in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6 E3; 6 52.84 cM
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2024_02 current GRCm39 (GCF_000001635.27) 6 NC_000072.7 (113693080..113696872, complement)
108.20200622 previous assembly GRCm38.p6 (GCF_000001635.26) 6 NC_000072.6 (113716119..113719911, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000072.7Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E2798 Neighboring gene STARR-seq mESC enhancer starr_17046 Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E6467 Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E6468 Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E3671 Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E9672 Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E1707 Neighboring gene interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2 Neighboring gene STARR-seq mESC enhancer starr_17051 Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E6469 Neighboring gene TatD DNase domain containing 2 Neighboring gene microRNA 7042 Neighboring gene SEC13 homolog, nuclear pore and COPII coat complex component Neighboring gene ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 2 Neighboring gene STARR-seq mESC enhancer starr_17054 Neighboring gene STARR-seq mESC enhancer starr_17055 Neighboring gene predicted gene 15083

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: Mouse ENCODE transcriptome data
  • Description: RNA profiling data sets generated by the Mouse ENCODE project.
  • BioProject: PRJNA66167
  • Publication: PMID 25409824
  • Analysis date: n/a

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Variation

Alleles

Alleles of this type are documented at Mouse Genome Informatics  (MGI)

Pathways from PubChem

General gene information

Markers

Gene Ontology Provided by MGI

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables G protein-coupled receptor binding ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
enables ghrelin receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables ghrelin receptor binding ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
enables growth hormone-releasing hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables growth hormone-releasing hormone activity ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
enables hormone activity ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
enables hormone activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables protein tyrosine kinase activator activity ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in actin polymerization or depolymerization ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in adult feeding behavior IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in decidualization ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within dendrite development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within dendrite development ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within excitatory postsynaptic potential IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in gastric acid secretion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in gastric acid secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of apoptotic process ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of inflammatory response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of inflammatory response ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of insulin secretion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of insulin secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-6 production ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of locomotion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of MAPK cascade ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of adipose tissue development ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of appetite IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of appetite IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of appetite IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
NOT acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of appetite IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of appetite IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of bone development ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of corticotropin secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cortisol secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of eating behavior ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of feeding behavior ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of gastric mucosal blood circulation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of gastro-intestinal system smooth muscle contraction ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of growth ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of growth hormone secretion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of growth hormone secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of growth rate ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of insulin secretion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of response to food ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of small intestinal transit ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of small intestine smooth muscle contraction ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of synapse assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of synapse assembly ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in postsynaptic modulation of chemical synaptic transmission ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in regulation of cell population proliferation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in regulation of gastric motility ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in regulation of postsynapse organization ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in regulation of response to food IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in regulation of response to food ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in regulation of transmission of nerve impulse ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in response to estrogen ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in response to hormone ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of synapse assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within visual learning ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
is_active_in Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
located_in axon ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
located_in cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular region ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
located_in extracellular space ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
is_active_in glutamatergic synapse ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
appetite-regulating hormone
Names
growth hormone secretagogue
growth hormone-releasing peptide
motilin-related peptide
preproghrelin
proghrelin

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001286404.1NP_001273333.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 2 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273333.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 5' coding region compared to variant 1. This results in a shorter protein (isoform 2) compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK008658, AV079302, BY149645
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS85127.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9EQX0
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145096.2, ENSMUST00000204163.3
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:56114
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
    pfam04644
    Location:2550
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin
  2. NM_001286405.1NP_001273334.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 3 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273334.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and lacks an exon in the 3' coding region resulting in a frameshift, compared to variant 1. The encoded protein (isoform 3) is shorter than isoform 1 and has a distinct C-terminus. This isoform (3) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK008860, BC094911
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS85128.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q811T4
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145366.2, ENSMUST00000203363.3
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam04644
    Location:2551
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin
  3. NM_001286406.1NP_001273335.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 4 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273335.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR and lacks an in-frame exon in the 5' coding region compared to variant 1. The encoded protein (isoform 4) is shorter than isoform 1. This isoform (4) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB111891, AK008860
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS85126.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q7TSD1
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145514.2, ENSMUST00000203588.2
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:3676
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
    pfam04644
    Location:2436
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin
  4. NM_001379129.1NP_001366058.1  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 1 preproprotein

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6), as well as variant 1, encodes isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC117596
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9EQX0, Q9WUZ1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A2RSS9
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000145281.2, ENSMUST00000203770.3
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:57115
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
    pfam04644
    Location:2451
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin
  5. NM_021488.5NP_067463.2  appetite-regulating hormone isoform 1 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_067463.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC117596, AK008658, AV079302
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS20432.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9EQX0, Q9WUZ1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A2RSS9
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000069567.6, ENSMUST00000064993.8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04643
    Location:57115
    Motilin_assoc; Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
    pfam04644
    Location:2451
    Motilin_ghrelin; Motilin/ghrelin

RNA

  1. NR_138135.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks multiple exons and contains an alternate 5' terminal exon compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the predicted protein does not meet RefSeq quality criteria.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC117596, AV079302, CK137452
    Related
    ENSMUST00000204533.3

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001635.27-RS_2024_02

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCm39 C57BL/6J

Genomic

  1. NC_000072.7 Reference GRCm39 C57BL/6J

    Range
    113693080..113696872 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)