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PTN pleiotrophin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5764, updated on 8-Jul-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
PTNprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
pleiotrophinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9630
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000105894 MIM:162095
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
HARP; HBBM; HBNF; HBGF8; NEGF1; OSF-1; HB-GAM; HBGF-8; HBNF-1
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted heparin-binding growth factor. The protein has significant roles in cell growth and survival, cell migration, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]
Expression
Broad expression in brain (RPKM 83.5), prostate (RPKM 56.7) and 17 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See PTN in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
7q33
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 7 NC_000007.14 (137227341..137343733, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (136912088..137028479, complement)

Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC349160 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375525 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L18 pseudogene 5 Neighboring gene HERV.E-PTN promoter Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375527 Neighboring gene pleiotrophin promoter Neighboring gene diacylglycerol kinase iota Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L6 pseudogene 19 Neighboring gene cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 2 Neighboring gene CREB3L2 antisense RNA 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci.
GeneReviews: Not available

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables chondroitin sulfate binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables growth factor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables growth factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables heparan sulfate binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables heparin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables integrin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein phosphatase inhibitor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables syndecan binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables vascular endothelial growth factor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in bone mineralization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to UV IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to platelet-derived growth factor stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to vitamin D IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cerebellum development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in decidualization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in dendrite arborization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in dendrite regeneration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in endothelial cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in estrous cycle ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in heart development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in integrin-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in learning ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in liver development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in long-term synaptic potentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in lung development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in memory ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of angiogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of catalytic activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of glial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of membrane potential IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of neuromuscular junction development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in nervous system development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in oogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in ossification involved in bone remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of axon regeneration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of bone mineralization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of dendrite development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of hepatocyte proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron projection development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of ossification ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of skeletal muscle acetylcholine-gated channel clustering IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of stem cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in receptor clustering IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell shape IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in regulation of endothelial cell migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of hemopoiesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of myelination ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of stem cell population maintenance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of synaptic plasticity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in response to activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to auditory stimulus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in response to ciliary neurotrophic factor IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to estradiol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to kainic acid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to nerve growth factor IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to progesterone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in retinal rod cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in rod bipolar cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in spinal cord development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in thalamus development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in tissue regeneration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in basement membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in cell surface IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in endoplasmic reticulum IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
is_active_in extracellular region IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in neuromuscular junction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in postsynapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in presynapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
part_of protein-containing complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
pleiotrophin
Names
heparin affin regulatory protein
heparin-binding brain mitogen
heparin-binding growth factor 8
heparin-binding growth-associated molecule
heparin-binding neurite outgrowth promoting factor
heparin-binding neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 1
osteoblast-specific factor 1
pleiotrophin (heparin binding growth factor 8, neurite growth-promoting factor 1)

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001321386.2NP_001308315.1  pleiotrophin isoform 1 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and represents use of an alternate promoter, compared to variant 1. Both variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein. This variant represents use of an upstream long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter and exon sequence, and results in placenta-specific expression. (PMID: 8962128)
    Source sequence(s)
    AC018728, AU138017, AW020400, BC005916
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS5844.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21246
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R778
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl02505
    Location:47131
    PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain
  2. NM_001321387.3NP_001308316.1  pleiotrophin isoform 2 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This results in a shorter protein (isoform 2), compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW020400, BC005916, BX420480
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21246
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl02505
    Location:47131
    PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain
  3. NM_002825.7NP_002816.1  pleiotrophin isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002816.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longer isoform. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW020400, BC005916, M57399
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS5844.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21246
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R778
    Related
    ENSP00000341170.2, ENST00000348225.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl02505
    Location:47131
    PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    137227341..137343733 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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