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AZU1 azurocidin 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 566, updated on 17-Jun-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
AZU1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
azurocidin 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:913
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000172232 MIM:162815
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
AZU; HBP; NAZC; hHBP; AZAMP; CAP37; HUMAZUR
Summary
Azurophil granules, specialized lysosomes of the neutrophil, contain at least 10 proteins implicated in the killing of microorganisms. This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate a mature azurophil granule antibiotic protein, with monocyte chemotactic and antimicrobial activity. It is also an important multifunctional inflammatory mediator. This encoded protein is a member of the serine protease gene family but it is not a serine proteinase, because the active site serine and histidine residues are replaced. The genes encoding this protein, neutrophil elastase 2, and proteinase 3 are in a cluster located at chromosome 19pter. All 3 genes are expressed coordinately and their protein products are packaged together into azurophil granules during neutrophil differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Expression
Restricted expression toward bone marrow (RPKM 1256.4) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See AZU1 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
19p13.3
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 19 NC_000019.10 (827837..832018)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (827831..832017)

Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 Neighboring gene microRNA 4745 Neighboring gene phospholipid phosphatase related 3 Neighboring gene microRNA 3187 Neighboring gene proteinase 3 Neighboring gene elastase, neutrophil expressed

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
heparin binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
peptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
serine-type endopeptidase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
toxic substance binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
antimicrobial humoral response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
cell chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular extravasation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
defense response to Gram-negative bacterium TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
defense response to virus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
glial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
induction of positive chemotaxis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
inflammatory response NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
macrophage chemotaxis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
microglial cell activation IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
monocyte activation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
neutrophil mediated killing of bacterium IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fractalkine biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phagocytosis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase C signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
proteolysis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of vascular permeability NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
azurophil granule IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
azurophil granule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
azurophil granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
azurophil granule membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic component of membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
azurocidin
Names
cationic antimicrobial protein 37
cationic antimicrobial protein CAP37
heparin-binding protein
neutrophil azurocidin

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001700.5NP_001691.1  azurocidin preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001691.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC093931, BU617927
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12044.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P20160
    Related
    ENSP00000233997.1, ENST00000233997.4
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00190
    Location:27240
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    827837..832018
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

Genomic

  1. NT_187622.1 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

    Range
    6680..10861
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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