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PRL prolactin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5617, updated on 7-Jun-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
PRLprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
prolactinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9445
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000172179 MIM:176760
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GHA1
Summary
This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Expression
Biased expression in placenta (RPKM 13.9) and endometrium (RPKM 5.4) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PRL in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p22.3
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200522 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 6 NC_000006.12 (22287246..22302897, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (22287473..22303082, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene cancer susceptibility 15 Neighboring gene VISTA enhancer hs1335 Neighboring gene neuroblastoma associated transcript 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374971 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374972 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374973 Neighboring gene HDGF like 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association identifies three new susceptibility loci for Paget's disease of bone.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide joint meta-analysis of SNP and SNP-by-smoking interaction identifies novel loci for pulmonary function.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif downregulates the expression of prolactin (PRL) in Vif-expression T cells PubMed
nucleocapsid gag HIV-1 NC upregulates prolactin in HEK 293T cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
prolactin receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
female pregnancy IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
lactation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mammary gland development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of angiogenesis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lactation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of multicellular organism growth IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
response to nutrient levels IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
endosome lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
prolactin
Names
decidual prolactin
growth hormone A1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029819.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5019..20608
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000948.6NP_000939.1  prolactin precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000939.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC015850, CD106243
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4548.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01236
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5THQ0
    Related
    ENSP00000302150.1, ENST00000306482.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10288
    Location:29227
    prolactin_like; Prolactin (PRL or PRL1), chorionic somatomammotropin, and related pituitary gland hormones
  2. NM_001163558.3NP_001157030.1  prolactin precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001157030.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    CD106243, GQ305133
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4548.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01236
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5THQ0
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10288
    Location:29227
    prolactin_like; Prolactin (PRL or PRL1), chorionic somatomammotropin, and related pituitary gland hormones

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    22287246..22302897 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011514753.2XP_011513055.1  prolactin isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011513055.1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5I0G2
    Related
    ENSP00000480195.1, ENST00000617911.4
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10288
    Location:30228
    prolactin_like; Prolactin (PRL or PRL1), chorionic somatomammotropin, and related pituitary gland hormones
  2. XM_011514754.2XP_011513056.1  prolactin isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011513056.1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5I0G2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10288
    Location:30228
    prolactin_like; Prolactin (PRL or PRL1), chorionic somatomammotropin, and related pituitary gland hormones
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