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PRL prolactin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5617, updated on 6-Jun-2024

Summary

Official Symbol
PRLprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
prolactinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9445
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000172179 MIM:176760; AllianceGenome:HGNC:9445
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GHA1
Summary
This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Expression
Biased expression in placenta (RPKM 13.9) and endometrium (RPKM 5.4) See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See PRL in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p22.3
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 6 NC_000006.12 (22287246..22302835, complement)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 6 NC_060930.1 (22159710..22175312, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (22287475..22303064, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124901275 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:22221433-22222281 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:22223143-22223644 Neighboring gene NGRN pseudogene 4 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:22313984-22314538 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374971 Neighboring gene MED14-independent group 3 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:22441843-22443042 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:22443327-22443827 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak5731 silencer Neighboring gene HDGF like 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374973 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 3005

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

EBI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association identifies three new susceptibility loci for Paget's disease of bone.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genome-wide joint meta-analysis of SNP and SNP-by-smoking interaction identifies novel loci for pulmonary function.
EBI GWAS Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif downregulates the expression of prolactin (PRL) in Vif-expression T cells PubMed
nucleocapsid gag HIV-1 NC upregulates prolactin in HEK 293T cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables prolactin receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in female pregnancy IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in lactation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in mammary gland development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of angiogenesis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of lactation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of miRNA transcription IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in prolactin signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to nutrient levels IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in endosome lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
prolactin
Names
decidual prolactin
growth hormone A1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029819.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    10818..20608
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000948.6NP_000939.1  prolactin precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000939.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC015850, CD106243
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4548.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01236, Q15199, Q92996
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5THQ0
    Related
    ENSP00000302150.1, ENST00000306482.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10288
    Location:29227
    prolactin_like; Prolactin (PRL or PRL1), chorionic somatomammotropin, and related pituitary gland hormones
  2. NM_001163558.3NP_001157030.1  prolactin precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001157030.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    CD106243, GQ305133
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4548.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01236, Q15199, Q92996
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5THQ0
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10288
    Location:29227
    prolactin_like; Prolactin (PRL or PRL1), chorionic somatomammotropin, and related pituitary gland hormones

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    22287246..22302835 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011514753.3XP_011513055.1  prolactin isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011513055.1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5I0G2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10288
    Location:30228
    prolactin_like; Prolactin (PRL or PRL1), chorionic somatomammotropin, and related pituitary gland hormones
  2. XM_047419075.1XP_047275031.1  prolactin isoform X1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5I0G2
    Related
    ENSP00000480195.1, ENST00000617911.4
  3. XM_047419076.1XP_047275032.1  prolactin isoform X2

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01236, Q15199, Q92996
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5THQ0
  4. XM_011514754.3XP_011513056.1  prolactin isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011513056.1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5I0G2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd10288
    Location:30228
    prolactin_like; Prolactin (PRL or PRL1), chorionic somatomammotropin, and related pituitary gland hormones

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060930.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    22159710..22175312 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_054355929.1XP_054211904.1  prolactin isoform X1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5I0G2
  2. XM_054355931.1XP_054211906.1  prolactin isoform X1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5I0G2
  3. XM_054355932.1XP_054211907.1  prolactin isoform X2

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01236, Q15199, Q92996
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5THQ0
  4. XM_054355930.1XP_054211905.1  prolactin isoform X1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A6XMH3, E9PF72, Q5I0G2