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PRKG2 protein kinase cGMP-dependent 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5593, updated on 10-Oct-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
PRKG2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
protein kinase cGMP-dependent 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9416
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000138669 MIM:601591
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PKG2; cGK2; cGKII; PRKGR2
Summary
This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activation of several receptor tyrosine kinases. The membrane-bound protein is a regulator of intestinal secretion, bone growth and renin secretion. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms whose regulatory N-termini differ in length but whose C-terminal catalytic domains are identical. [provided by RefSeq, May 2018]
Expression
Biased expression in prostate (RPKM 4.2), small intestine (RPKM 4.1) and 11 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PRKG2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
4q21.21
Exon count:
23
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 4 NC_000004.12 (81087370..81217837, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (82008643..82136271, complement)

Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene cilia and flagella associated protein 299 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377305 Neighboring gene bone morphogenetic protein 3 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928942 Neighboring gene RNA, U5A small nuclear 2, pseudogene Neighboring gene RasGEF domain family member 1B

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Gene-Smoking Interactions Identify Several Novel Blood Pressure Loci in the Framingham Heart Study.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for human adult stature identifies novel Loci and associations with measures of skeletal frame size.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemHumans and mice have 19 identified WNT proteins that were originally classified as either 'canonical' or 'non-canonical' depending upon whether they were able to transform the mouse mammary epithelia...
  • Ca2+ pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ca2+ pathway, organism-specific biosystemA number of so called non-canonical WNT ligands have been shown to promote intracellular calcium release upon FZD binding. This beta-catenin-independent WNT pathway acts through heterotrimeric G pro...
  • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystemThis is currently not a pathway but a list of circadian rhythm related genes and proteins. The source for this information is the gene ontology. The genes and proteins were filtered for "circadian rh...
  • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, conserved biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of nitric oxide, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of nitric oxide, organism-specific biosystemNitric oxide (NO), a multifunctional second messenger, is implicated in physiological functions in mammals that range from immune response and potentiation of synaptic transmission to dilation of blo...
  • Nitric oxide stimulates guanylate cyclase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nitric oxide stimulates guanylate cyclase, organism-specific biosystemNitric Oxide (NO) inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and platelet aggregation and adhesion. It can stimulate vasodilatation of the endothe...
  • Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
  • Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
  • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
  • Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemUnder normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses coagulation, enhances fibrin cleavage and is anti-inflammatory in charact...
  • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystemLipolysis in adipocytes, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) to release fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol for use by other organs as energy substrates, is a unique function of white adipose tissue. ...
  • Renin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renin secretion, organism-specific biosystemThe aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. R...
  • Renin secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renin secretion, conserved biosystemThe aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. R...
  • Salivary secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salivary secretion, organism-specific biosystemSaliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for e...
  • Salivary secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salivary secretion, conserved biosystemSaliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for e...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation, organism-specific biosystemTetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential co-factor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and glycerol ether monooxygenase and it regulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Inherited BH4 defi...
  • cGMP effects, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    cGMP effects, organism-specific biosystemCyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is an important secondary messenger synthesized by guanylate cyclases. cGMP has effects on phosphodiesterases (PDE), ion-gated channels, and the cGMP-dependent p...
  • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
  • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
  • eNOS activation and regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    eNOS activation and regulation, organism-specific biosystemOriginally identified as endothelium-derived relaxing factor, eNOS derived NO is a critical signaling molecule in vascular homeostasis. It regulates blood pressure and vascular tone, and is involved...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cGMP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein homodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cofactor metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of chloride transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
peptidyl-serine autophosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein localization to plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein phosphorylation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
apical plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nuclear membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2
Names
cGMP-dependent protein kinase II
protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II
testicular tissue protein Li 99
NP_001269409.1
NP_001269410.1
NP_001269411.1
NP_001269412.1
NP_001269414.1
NP_001350330.1
NP_006250.1
XP_016863902.1
XP_016863903.1
XP_016863904.1
XP_016863905.1
XP_016863906.1
XP_016863907.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001282480.1NP_001269409.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269409.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) represents the use of an alternate promoter, and has multiple differences compared to variant 1. These differences result in a distinct 5' UTR and cause translation initiation at a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform a. Variants 2 and 3 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC139722, AK297673, AK316140, BF508892, DA569289, X94612
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS75150.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13237
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B7ZA25
    Related
    ENSP00000439967.1, ENST00000545647.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd05572
    Location:39298
    STKc_cGK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG)
  2. NM_001282481.1NP_001269410.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269410.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) represents the use of an alternate promoter, and has multiple differences compared to variant 1. These differences result in a distinct 5' UTR and cause translation initiation at a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform a. Variants 2 and 3 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC139722, AK296979, AK297673, AK316140, BF508892, DA569289, X94612
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS75150.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13237
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DLF9, B7ZA25
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd05572
    Location:39298
    STKc_cGK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG)
  3. NM_001282482.1NP_001269411.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform c

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269411.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) represents the use of an alternate promoter, and has multiple differences compared to variant 1. These differences result in a distinct 5' UTR and cause translation initiation at a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (c) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC139722, AK297673, AK316140, BF508892, DA569289, DC348270, X94612
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13237
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B7ZA25
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PTZ00263
    Location:2303
    PTZ00263; protein kinase A catalytic subunit; Provisional
    cd05572
    Location:19269
    STKc_cGK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG)
  4. NM_001282483.1NP_001269412.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform d

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269412.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) represents the use of an alternate promoter, and has multiple differences compared to variant 1. These differences result in a distinct 5' UTR and cause translation initiation at a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (d) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC139722, AK297673, AK316140, BF508892, DA462272, DA569289, X94612
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13237
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B7ZA25
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd05572
    Location:1238
    STKc_cGK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG)
  5. NM_001282485.2NP_001269414.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform e

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269414.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in an internal exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (e) is shorter compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC098819, AC139722, AK297673, BF508892, DA569289, DB455792, X94612
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS64005.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13237
    Related
    ENSP00000486129.1, ENST00000628926.1
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00038
    Location:286401
    CAP_ED; effector domain of the CAP family of transcription factors; members include CAP (or cAMP receptor protein (CRP)), which binds cAMP, FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction), which uses an iron-sulfur cluster to sense oxygen) and CooA, a heme containing CO ...
    cd05572
    Location:439689
    STKc_cGK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG)
  6. NM_001363401.2NP_001350330.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform a

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) uses an alternate splice site in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1, and encodes isoform a. Variants 1 and 7 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC098819, AC139722
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS3589.1
    Related
    ENSP00000378945.1, ENST00000395578.3
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00038
    Location:286401
    CAP_ED; effector domain of the CAP family of transcription factors; members include CAP (or cAMP receptor protein (CRP)), which binds cAMP, FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction), which uses an iron-sulfur cluster to sense oxygen) and CooA, a heme containing CO ...
    cd05572
    Location:459718
    STKc_cGK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG)
  7. NM_006259.2NP_006250.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006250.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (a). Variants 1 and 7 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC139722, BF508892, DA569289, DB455792, X94612
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS3589.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q13237
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A140VJM3
    Related
    ENSP00000264399.1, ENST00000264399.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00038
    Location:286401
    CAP_ED; effector domain of the CAP family of transcription factors; members include CAP (or cAMP receptor protein (CRP)), which binds cAMP, FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction), which uses an iron-sulfur cluster to sense oxygen) and CooA, a heme containing CO ...
    cd05572
    Location:459718
    STKc_cGK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK or PKG)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    81087370..81217837 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017008415.1XP_016863904.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform X1

  2. XM_017008416.1XP_016863905.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform X1

  3. XM_017008414.1XP_016863903.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform X1

  4. XM_017008413.1XP_016863902.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform X1

  5. XM_017008417.1XP_016863906.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform X3

  6. XM_017008418.1XP_016863907.1  cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform X4

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    COG0664
    Location:162285
    Crp; cAMP-binding domain of CRP or a regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinases [Signal transduction mechanisms]
    cd00038
    Location:286401
    CAP_ED; effector domain of the CAP family of transcription factors; members include CAP (or cAMP receptor protein (CRP)), which binds cAMP, FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction), which uses an iron-sulfur cluster to sense oxygen) and CooA, a heme containing CO ...
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