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SMOX spermine oxidase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 54498, updated on 1-Jun-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
SMOXprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
spermine oxidaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:15862
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000088826 MIM:615854
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PAO; SMO; PAO1; PAOH; PAO-1; PAOH1; C20orf16
Summary
Polyamines are ubiquitous polycationic alkylamines which include spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and agmatine. These molecules participate in a broad range of cellular functions which include cell cycle modulation, scavenging reactive oxygen species, and the control of gene expression. These molecules also play important roles in neurotransmission through their regulation of cell-surface receptor activity, involvement in intracellular signalling pathways, and their putative roles as neurotransmitters. This gene encodes an FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermadine and secondarily produces hydrogen peroxide. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoenzymes have been identified for this gene, some of which have failed to demonstrate significant oxidase activity on natural polyamine substrates. The characterized isoenzymes have distinctive biochemical characteristics and substrate specificities, suggesting the existence of additional levels of complexity in polyamine catabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in brain (RPKM 15.8), bone marrow (RPKM 10.0) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See SMOX in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
20p13
Exon count:
9
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200522 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 20 NC_000020.11 (4148779..4187747)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (4129426..4168394)

Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 12382 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr20.311 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1433 Neighboring gene adrenoceptor alpha 1D

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association study of panic disorder in the Japanese population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of spermine oxidase (SMO) activity involves NMDAR stimulation in human neuroblastoma PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC1010, FLJ20746

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
N1-acetylspermine:oxygen oxidoreductase (N1-acetylspermidine-forming) activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
norspermine:oxygen oxidoreductase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
oxidoreductase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
polyamine oxidase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
polyamine oxidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
spermine:oxygen oxidoreductase (spermidine-forming) activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
oxidation-reduction process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
polyamine biosynthetic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
polyamine catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
spermine catabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nuclear membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
spermine oxidase
Names
flavin containing amine oxidase
flavin-containing spermine oxidase
polyamine oxidase 1
putative cyclin G1 interacting protein
NP_001257620.1
NP_787033.1
NP_787034.1
NP_787035.1
NP_787036.1
XP_011527563.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001270691.1NP_001257620.1  spermine oxidase isoform 6

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001257620.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) has an additional in-frame segment of the coding region, compared to variant 1. It encodes a longer isoform (6), also known as SMOX5 or SMO5, that has an additional internal segment compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW136764, AY358104, BG679874, EF032141
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS74702.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NWM0
    Related
    ENSP00000478305.1, ENST00000621355.4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02568
    Location:50578
    PLN02568; polyamine oxidase
    pfam13450
    Location:4588
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
  2. NM_175839.3NP_787033.1  spermine oxidase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_787033.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the most abundant transcript and encodes isoform (1), also known as PAOh1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW136764, AY358104, BG679874, EF032141
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13075.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NWM0
    Related
    ENSP00000307252.4, ENST00000305958.9
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02568
    Location:50548
    PLN02568; polyamine oxidase
    pfam13450
    Location:4588
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
  3. NM_175840.3NP_787034.1  spermine oxidase isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_787034.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an in-frame segment of the coding region, compared to variant 1. It encodes a shorter isoform (2), also known as PAOh2, that is missing an internal segment compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW136764, AY358104, BG679874, EF032141
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13076.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NWM0
    Related
    ENSP00000344595.6, ENST00000339123.10
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27535
    Location:50495
    Amino_oxidase; Flavin containing amine oxidoreductase
  4. NM_175841.3NP_787035.1  spermine oxidase isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_787035.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an in-frame segment of the coding region, compared to variant 1. It encodes a shorter isoform (3), also known as PAOh3, that is missing an internal segment compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW136764, AY033891, BG679874
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13077.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NWM0
    Related
    ENSP00000341775.2, ENST00000346595.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27535
    Location:146183
    Amino_oxidase; Flavin containing amine oxidoreductase
  5. NM_175842.3NP_787036.1  spermine oxidase isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_787036.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) has multiple differences in the coding region but maintains the reading frame, compared to variant 1. This variant encodes isoform 4, also known as PAOh4, which is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AW136764, AY358104, BG679874, EF032141
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13078.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NWM0
    Related
    ENSP00000278795.3, ENST00000278795.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl27535
    Location:50525
    Amino_oxidase; Flavin containing amine oxidoreductase

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000020.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    4148779..4187747
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011529261.2XP_011527563.1  spermine oxidase isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527563.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NWM0
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN02568
    Location:50578
    PLN02568; polyamine oxidase
    pfam13450
    Location:4588
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
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