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PKM pyruvate kinase M1/2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5315, updated on 13-Jan-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
PKMprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
pyruvate kinase M1/2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9021
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000067225 MIM:179050
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PK3; TCB; OIP3; PKM2; CTHBP; THBP1; HEL-S-30
Summary
This gene encodes a protein involved in glycolysis. The encoded protein is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP, generating ATP and pyruvate. This protein has been shown to interact with thyroid hormone and may mediate cellular metabolic effects induced by thyroid hormones. This protein has been found to bind Opa protein, a bacterial outer membrane protein involved in gonococcal adherence to and invasion of human cells, suggesting a role of this protein in bacterial pathogenesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding a few distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in brain (RPKM 155.4), esophagus (RPKM 151.3) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PKM in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
15q23
Exon count:
16
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 15 NC_000015.10 (72199029..72231624, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 15 NC_000015.9 (72491370..72523901, complement)

Chromosome 15 - NC_000015.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene SUMO peptidase family member, NEDD8 specific Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L21 pseudogene 115 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107984715 Neighboring gene GRAM domain containing 2A Neighboring gene poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family member 6 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370887

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify pyruvate kinase of muscle (PKM), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160 is identified to have a physical interaction with pyruvate kinase, muscle (PKM2) in human HEK293 and/or Jurkat cell lines by using affinity tagging and purification mass spectrometry analyses PubMed
Gag-Pol gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify pyruvate kinase of muscle (PKM), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify pyruvate kinase of muscle (PKM), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify pyruvate kinase of muscle (PKM), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Tat tat Expression of HIV-1 Tat upregulates the abundance of pyruvate kinase, muscle (PKM) in the nucleoli of Jurkat T-cells PubMed
Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies upregulation of pyruvate kinase, muscle (PKM) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol Positional proteomics analysis identifies the cleavage of human pyruvate kinase, muscle (PKM) at amino acid residues 306-307 and 359-361 by the HIV-1 protease PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

  • Homologs of the PKM gene: The PKM gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish, fruit fly, mosquito, C.elegans, S.cerevisiae, K.lactis, E.gossypii, S.pombe, M.oryzae, N.crassa, A.thaliana, rice, and frog.
  • Orthologs from Annotation Pipeline: 200 organisms have orthologs with human gene PKM
  • Orthologs

Clone Names

  • MGC3932

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ADP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
MHC class II protein complex binding HDA PubMed 
RNA binding HDA PubMed 
cadherin binding HDA PubMed 
identical protein binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
magnesium ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
potassium ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
pyruvate kinase activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
pyruvate kinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
pyruvate kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
pyruvate kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
thyroid hormone binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
animal organ regeneration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
canonical glycolysis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to insulin stimulus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
glycolytic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
liver development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
programmed cell death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein homotetramerization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to gravity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to muscle inactivity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to nutrient IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
skeletal muscle tissue regeneration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cilium IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
collagen-containing extracellular matrix HDA PubMed 
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular vesicle HDA PubMed 
ficolin-1-rich granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitochondrion HDA PubMed 
nucleus HDA PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
pyruvate kinase complex IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
secretory granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vesicle HDA PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
pyruvate kinase PKM
Names
OIP-3
OPA-interacting protein 3
PK, muscle type
cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein
epididymis secretory protein Li 30
p58
pyruvate kinase 2/3
pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2
pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme
pyruvate kinase, muscle
thyroid hormone-binding protein 1
thyroid hormone-binding protein, cytosolic
tumor M2-PK
NP_001193725.1
NP_001193726.1
NP_001193727.1
NP_001193728.1
NP_001303247.1
NP_002645.3
NP_872270.1
NP_872271.1
XP_005254500.1
XP_005254502.1
XP_006720633.1
XP_011519972.1
XP_016877802.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_052978.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..37596
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001206796.2NP_001193725.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform c

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001193725.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (c).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC020779, AK294315, BC000481, BC035198, DA382029, DC326232, DC376054
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00288
    Location:116604
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
    TIGR01064
    Location:117601
    pyruv_kin; pyruvate kinase
  2. NM_001206797.2NP_001193726.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform d

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001193726.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence, lacks an alternate in-frame segment, and has an alternate in-frame coding exon compared to variant 4. The resulting isoform (d) is shorter at the N-terminus, lacks an alternate internal segment, and has a different internal segment compared to isoform c.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC020779, AK297951, BC000481, BC035198, DC326232, DC376054
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS73752.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DNK4
    Related
    ENSP00000373745.4, ENST00000389093.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00288
    Location:42456
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
  3. NM_001206798.2NP_001193727.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform e

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001193727.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence, lacks an alternate exon, and has an alternate in-frame coding exon compared to variant 4. The resulting isoform (e) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus, lacks an alternate internal segment, and has a different internal segment compared to isoform c.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC020779, AK300800, BC000481, BC035198, DC326232, DC376054
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55972.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    Related
    ENSP00000403365.2, ENST00000449901.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00288
    Location:68515
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
    TIGR01064
    Location:68512
    pyruv_kin; pyruvate kinase
  4. NM_001206799.1NP_001193728.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform f

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001193728.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 4. The resulting isoform (f) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform c.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK294315, AK309781, BC000481, BC035198
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00288
    Location:47535
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
    TIGR01064
    Location:48532
    pyruv_kin; pyruvate kinase
  5. NM_001316318.1NP_001303247.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform g

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (8) lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the 5' end of the coding sequence compared to variant 4. The resulting isoform (g) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform c.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC020779, AK294315, BC000481, BC035198, BC096823, DC326232, DC376054
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00288
    Location:77565
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
    TIGR01064
    Location:78562
    pyruv_kin; pyruvate kinase
  6. NM_002654.6NP_002645.3  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002645.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence and has an alternate in-frame coding exon compared to variant 4. The resulting isoform (a, also called M2) is shorter at the N-terminus and has a different internal segment compared to isoform c.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC020779
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS32284.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HWB8
    Related
    ENSP00000334983.5, ENST00000335181.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00288
    Location:42530
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
  7. NM_182470.3NP_872270.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_872270.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 4. The resulting isoform (b, also called M1) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform c.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC020779, AK092369, BC023592, BC035198, DC326232, DC376054
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS32285.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R5Z9
    Related
    ENSP00000320171.6, ENST00000319622.10
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00288
    Location:42530
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
  8. NM_182471.3NP_872271.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_872271.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 4. The resulting isoform (b, also called M1) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform c.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC020779, BC023592, BC035198, DC326232, DC376054
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS32285.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R5Z9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00288
    Location:42530
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000015.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    72199029..72231624 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005254445.5XP_005254502.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform X4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005254502.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HWB8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00288
    Location:42530
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
  2. XM_017022313.2XP_016877802.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform X5

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14618
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R5Z9
    Related
    ENSP00000456970.1, ENST00000568459.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00288
    Location:42530
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
  3. XM_011521670.2XP_011519972.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform X3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011519972.1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00288
    Location:77565
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
  4. XM_006720570.1XP_006720633.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00288
    Location:116604
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
    TIGR01064
    Location:117601
    pyruv_kin; pyruvate kinase
  5. XM_005254443.1XP_005254500.1  pyruvate kinase PKM isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00288
    Location:102590
    Pyruvate_Kinase; Pyruvate kinase (PK): Large allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis through binding of the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and one or more allosteric effectors. Like other allosteric enzymes, PK has a high substrate affinity R state and a low ...
    TIGR01064
    Location:103587
    pyruv_kin; pyruvate kinase

RNA

  1. XR_001751314.2 RNA Sequence

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