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PENK proenkephalin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5179, updated on 15-Mar-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
PENKprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
proenkephalinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:8831
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000181195 MIM:131330
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PE; PENK-A
Summary
This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate multiple protein products. These products include the pentapeptide opioids Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin, which are stored in synaptic vesicles, then released into the synapse where they bind to mu- and delta-opioid receptors to modulate the perception of pain. Other non-opioid cleavage products may function in distinct biological activities. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
Expression
Biased expression in adrenal (RPKM 200.5), testis (RPKM 60.4) and 1 other tissue See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PENK in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
8q12.1
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200228 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 8 NC_000008.11 (56440957..56446641, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 8 NC_000008.10 (57353513..57359282, complement)

Chromosome 8 - NC_000008.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 16C member 6, pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375849 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929415 Neighboring gene septin 10 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929398

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
neuropeptide hormone activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
opioid peptide activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
opioid receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
aggressive behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
aging IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
behavioral fear response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to cAMP IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to oxidative stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to virus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to vitamin D IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
chemical synaptic transmission IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
general adaptation syndrome, behavioral process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
glial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
locomotory exploration behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
osteoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of behavioral fear response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
post-translational protein modification TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
response to calcium ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to epinephrine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to estradiol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to ethanol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to morphine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to nicotine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to radiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
sensory perception IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
sensory perception of pain IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
startle response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
synaptic signaling via neuropeptide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
axon terminus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell body fiber IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
dendrite IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
neuronal cell body IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
neuronal dense core vesicle lumen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
perikaryon IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
symmetric synapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
synaptic vesicle lumen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
proenkephalin-A
Names
enkephalin A
peptide F
preproenkephalin

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001135690.3NP_001129162.1  proenkephalin-A preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001129162.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK314908, BI496610
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6168.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01210
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R7V4
    Related
    ENSP00000400894.2, ENST00000451791.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2570
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000008.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    56440957..56446641 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_006211.3: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_006211.3: This RefSeq was removed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.
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