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PENK proenkephalin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5179, updated on 8-Jul-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
PENKprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
proenkephalinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:8831
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000181195 MIM:131330
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PE; PENK-A
Summary
This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate multiple protein products. These products include the pentapeptide opioids Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin, which are stored in synaptic vesicles, then released into the synapse where they bind to mu- and delta-opioid receptors to modulate the perception of pain. Other non-opioid cleavage products may function in distinct biological activities. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
Expression
Biased expression in adrenal (RPKM 200.5), testis (RPKM 60.4) and 1 other tissue See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See PENK in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
8q12.1
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 8 NC_000008.11 (56440957..56446641, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 8 NC_000008.10 (57353516..57359200, complement)

Chromosome 8 - NC_000008.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 16C member 6, pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375849 Neighboring gene PENK antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene septin 10 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929398

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height.
GeneReviews: Not available

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables neuropeptide hormone activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables opioid peptide activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables opioid receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in aggressive behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in aging IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in behavioral fear response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to cAMP IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to oxidative stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to virus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to vitamin D IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in chemical synaptic transmission IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in general adaptation syndrome, behavioral process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in glial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in locomotory exploration behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in osteoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of behavioral fear response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to calcium ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to epinephrine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to estradiol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to ethanol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to morphine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to nicotine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to radiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to toxic substance IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in sensory perception IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in sensory perception of pain IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in startle response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in synaptic signaling via neuropeptide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
is_active_in axon terminus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in cell body fiber IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in chromaffin granule lumen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
is_active_in dendrite IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in neuronal cell body IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in neuronal dense core vesicle lumen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in perikaryon IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
is_active_in plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in symmetric synapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in synaptic vesicle lumen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
proenkephalin-A
Names
enkephalin A
peptide F
preproenkephalin

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001135690.3NP_001129162.1  proenkephalin-A preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001129162.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK314908, BI496610
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6168.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01210
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R7V4
    Related
    ENSP00000400894.2, ENST00000451791.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2570
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000008.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    56440957..56446641 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_006211.3: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_006211.3: This RefSeq was removed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.
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