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NRAS NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4893, updated on 27-Mar-2017
Official Symbol
NRASprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:7989
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000213281 MIM:164790; Vega:OTTHUMG00000012059
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
NS6; CMNS; NCMS; ALPS4; N-ras; NRAS1
Summary
This is an N-ras oncogene encoding a membrane protein that shuttles between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. This shuttling is regulated through palmitoylation and depalmitoylation by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. The encoded protein, which has intrinsic GTPase activity, is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase activating protein. Mutations in this gene have been associated with somatic rectal cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
Orthologs
Location:
1p13.2
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 1 NC_000001.11 (114704464..114716894, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (115247085..115259515, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 432, pseudogene Neighboring gene cold shock domain containing E1 Neighboring gene RNA, Ro-associated Y1 pseudogene 13 Neighboring gene suppressor of IKBKE 1

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Carcinoma of colon
MedGen: C0699790 OMIM: 114500 GeneReviews: Not available
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Epidermal nevus
MedGen: C0334082 OMIM: 162900 GeneReviews: Not available
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Epidermal nevus syndrome
MedGen: C0265318 OMIM: 163200 GeneReviews: Not available
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Giant pigmented hairy nevus
MedGen: C1842036 OMIM: 137550 GeneReviews: Not available
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Neurocutaneous melanosis
MedGen: C0544862 OMIM: 249400 GeneReviews: Not available
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Noonan syndrome 6
MedGen: C2750732 OMIM: 613224 GeneReviews: Noonan Syndrome
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RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder
MedGen: C2674723 OMIM: 614470 GeneReviews: Not available
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Thyroid cancer, follicular
MedGen: C0206682 OMIM: 188470 GeneReviews: Not available
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NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Common genetic variants on 1p13.2 associate with risk of autism.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS) by shRNA library screening inhibits HIV-1 replication in cultured Jurkat T-cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Pretreatment of cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of p59(fyn), PLC-gamma1, ras activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in anti-CD3 mAb activated CD4+ T cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp160 alone or CD4/gp160 cross-linking induces tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular substrates p59fyn, zap 70, and p95vav and also leads to ras activation PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef-induced relocalization of LCK is correlated with N-Ras activation at recycling endosome/TGN compartments PubMed
Tat tat Treatment with Tat activates the Ras pathway in human brain micro vascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), an effect that is markedly attenuated by caveolin-1 silencing PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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  • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Activation of RAS in B cells, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Acute myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Acute myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Alcoholism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). The onset of apoptosis is controlled...
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    Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, organism-specific biosystemThe Aryl Hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is ligand activated transcription factor that regulates wide spectrum of gene expression. The main mediator of AhR is 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or...
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  • Axon guidance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Axon guidance, conserved biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
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  • B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • BDNF-TrkB Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    BDNF-TrkB Signaling, organism-specific biosystemBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin for the regulation of synaptic activity. BDNF-TrkB signaling, TrkB being the receptor of BDNF, is involved in transcription, tran...
  • Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • Bladder cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, conserved biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
  • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Breast cancer, conserved biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
  • C-MYB transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    C-MYB transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem
    C-MYB transcription factor network
  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystemPathogen recognition is central to the induction of T cell differentiation. Groups of pathogens share similar structures known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are recognised ...
  • CD209 (DC-SIGN) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CD209 (DC-SIGN) signaling, organism-specific biosystemCD209 (also called as DC-SIGN (DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin)) is a type II transmembrane C-type lectin receptor preferentially expressed on dendritic cells (DCs...
  • Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall, organism-specific biosystemLeukocyte extravasation is a rigorously controlled process that guides white cell movement from the vascular lumen to sites of tissue inflammation. The powerful adhesive interactions that are require...
  • Central carbon metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Central carbon metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMalignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamen...
  • Central carbon metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Central carbon metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystemMalignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamen...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
  • Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemAcetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as lear...
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Constitutive Signaling by EGFRvIII, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Constitutive Signaling by EGFRvIII, organism-specific biosystemIn glioblastoma, the most prevalent EGFR mutation, present in ~25% of tumors, is the deletion of the ligand binding domain of EGFR, accompanied with amplification of the mutated allele, which results...
  • Constitutive Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Cancer Variants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Constitutive Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Cancer Variants, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by EGFR is frequently activated in cancer through activating mutations in the coding sequence of the EGFR gene, resulting in expression of a constitutively active mutant protein. Epidermal ...
  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystemThis is the second pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and TP53) which are connected with the first DNA damage response pathway. In...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecula...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • EGFR Transactivation by Gastrin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylated EGFR tyrosine residues are docking sites for many downstream effectors in EGFR signaling. The adaptor protein GRB2 binds to phosphotyrosine residues in the C-tail of EGFR through i...
  • GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemERBB2:EGFR and ERBB2:ERBB4 can directly recruit GRB2:SOS1 complex through phosphorylated C-tail tyrosines of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1086) and ERBB2 (Y1139) that serve as docking sites for GRB2 (Xie et al. ...
  • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, conserved biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glioma, organism-specific biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
  • Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
  • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
  • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
  • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
  • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
  • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystemRegulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible ...
  • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
  • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
  • MAP2K and MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAP2K and MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemActivated RAF proteins are restricted substrate kinases whose primary downstream targets are the two MAP2K proteins, MAPK2K1 and MAP2K2 (also known as MEK1 and MEK2) (reviewed in Roskoski, 2010, Rosk...
  • MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
    MAPK Cascade
  • MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gen...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote diff...
  • MET activates RAS signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MET activates RAS signaling, organism-specific biosystemActivated MET receptor recruits the RAS guanyl nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) SOS1 indirectly, either through the GRB2 adapter (Ponzetto et al. 1994, Fournier et al. 1996, Shen and Novak 1997, Bess...
  • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, conserved biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemNanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling. Several NP formulations were shown to interact with cellular receptors such as the EGFR and integrins, inducing cellular phenotypes such as pro...
  • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
  • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
  • Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe duration and extent of activated MAPK signaling is regulated at many levels through mechanisms that include phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, changes to protein interacting partners and subc...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
  • Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
  • Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
  • Oncogenic MAPK signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Oncogenic MAPK signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe importance of the RAS/RAF/MAPK cascade in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival is highlighted by the fact that components of the pathway are mutated with high frequency...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and therapeutic opportunities, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and therapeutic opportunities, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on figure 1 from Merritt et al. (See Bibliography). The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway has been shown to have a significant correlation with the development of castration-resis...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PTK6 Regulates RHO GTPases, RAS GTPase and MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PTK6 Regulates RHO GTPases, RAS GTPase and MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystemPTK6 promotes cell motility and migration by regulating the activity of RHO GTPases RAC1 (Chen et al. 2004) and RHOA (Shen et al. 2008). PTK6 inhibits RAS GTPase activating protein RASA1 (Shen et al....
  • Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF, organism-specific biosystemWhile BRAF-specific inhibitors inhibit MAPK/ERK activation in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutant, paradoxical activation of ERK signaling has been observed after treatment of cells with inhibitor ...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
  • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • RAF activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF activation, organism-specific biosystemMammals have three RAF isoforms, A, B and C, that are activated downstream of RAS and stimulate the MAPK pathway. Although CRAF (also known as RAF-1) was the first identified and remains perhaps the ...
  • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Bin...
  • RAS signaling downstream of NF1 loss-of-function variants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAS signaling downstream of NF1 loss-of-function variants, organism-specific biosystemNF1 is a RAS GAP that stimulates the intrinsic RAS GTPase activity, thereby shifting the RAS pathway towards the inactive state (reviewed in King et al, 2013). Loss-of-function mutations in NF1 have...
  • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and de...
  • Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemRac1/p38 pathway from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.
  • RalA downstream regulated genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    RalA downstream regulated genes, organism-specific biosystemDownstream genes of RalA signaling pathways, including the Rac-family GTPase-activating protein RLIP (also known as RLIP76 and ralA binding protein 1 (RALBP1)), CDC42(cell division cycle 42), RAC1 (r...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystemhttp://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa04810.html
  • Regulation of RAS by GAPs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of RAS by GAPs, organism-specific biosystemThe intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins is stimulated by the GAP proteins, of which there are at least 10 in the human genome (reviewed in King et al, 2013).
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemThe exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction...
  • SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemThe exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction...
  • SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemThe exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction...
  • SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemThe exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction...
  • SHC-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylated IGF1R binds and phosphorylates SHC1 (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et al. 2010, Parrella et al. 2010, Siddle et al. 2012). Phosphorylated SHC then binds GR...
  • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
  • SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll ERBB2 heterodimers, ERBB2:EGFR, ERBB2:ERBB3 and ERBB2:ERBB4, are able to activate RAF/MAP kinase cascade by recruiting SHC1 (Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Sepp-Lorenzino et al. 1996) to phosphory...
  • SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll splicing isoforms of ERBB4 possess two tyrosine residues in the C-tail that serve as docking sites for SHC1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Cohen et al. 1996). Once bound t...
  • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
  • Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemSerotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endoc...
  • Serotonin Receptor 2 and ELK-SRF/GATA4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Serotonin Receptor 2 and ELK-SRF/GATA4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is courtesy of Ariadne Genomics Pathway Studio.
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemThe most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core p...
  • Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to the more prevalent point mutations, BRAF and RAF1 are also subject to activation as a result of translocation events that yield truncated or fusion products (Jones et al, 2008; Cin et ...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe pathway "Signaling by EGFR in Cancer" shows signaling by constitutively active EGFR cancer variants in the context of "Signaling by EGFR", allowing users to compare cancer events with the wild-ty...
  • Signaling by EGFRvIII in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFRvIII in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemEGFRvIII (EGFR V30_R297delinsG) is the most prevalent EGFR variant in glioblastoma, but it is also found in other cancer types. In-frame deletion of the ligand binding domain in EGFRvIII is frequentl...
  • Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystemERBB2, also known as HER2 or NEU, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to the EGFR family. ERBB2 possesses an extracellular domain that does not bind any known ligand, contrary to other EGFR...
  • Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular lig...
  • Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR in disease, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR1 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1 in disease, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR1 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations, chromosomal rearrangements and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on w...
  • Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR2 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2 in disease, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR2 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on whether these events occur in...
  • Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR3 fusions in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3 fusions in cancer, organism-specific biosystemIn recent years, recurrent fusions of FGFR3 have been identified in a number of cancers, including glioblastoma and cancers of the lung and bladder, among others (Singh et al, 2012; Parker et al, 201...
  • Signaling by FGFR3 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3 in disease, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR3 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on whether these events occur in...
  • Signaling by FGFR3 point mutants in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3 point mutants in cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR3 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on whether these events occur in...
  • Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR4 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4 in disease, organism-specific biosystemFGFR4 is perhaps the least well studied of the FGF receptors, and unlike the case for the other FGFR genes, mutations in FGFR4 are not known to be associated with any developmental disorders. Recent...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
  • Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Variants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Variants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemLigand-responsive EGFR cancer variants harbor mutations in the kinase domain or point mutations in the extracellular domain. These altered EGFR proteins are able to signal in the absence of ligands, ...
  • Signaling by MET, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by MET, organism-specific biosystemMET is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) (Cooper et al. 1984, Park et al. 1984) activated by binding to its ligand, Hepatocyte growth factor/Scatter factor (HGF/SF) (Bottaro et al. 1991, Naldini et al...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by PTK6, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PTK6, organism-specific biosystemPTK6 (BRK) is an oncogenic non-receptor tyrosine kinase that functions downstream of ERBB2 (HER2) (Xiang et al. 2008, Peng et al. 2015) and other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as EGFR (Kamalati et ...
  • Signaling by RAS mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by RAS mutants, organism-specific biosystemMembers of the RAS gene family were the first oncogenes to be identified, and mutations in RAS are present in ~20-30% of human cancers (reviewed in Prior et al, 2012). Mutations in the KRAS gene are ...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
  • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
  • Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystemBRAF is mutated in about 8% of human cancers, with high prevalence in hairy cell leukemia, melanoma, papillary thyroid and ovarian carcinomas, colorectal cancer and a variety of other tumors (Davies ...
  • Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to the highly prevalent and activating V600E BRAF mutations, numerous moderately activating and less common mutations have also been identified in human cancers (Forbes et al, 2015). Unl...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
  • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
  • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
  • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
  • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
  • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • TNF alpha Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TNF alpha Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in various biological processes including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune response. T...
  • Thyroid cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid cancer, organism-specific biosystemThyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cel...
  • Thyroid cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid cancer, conserved biosystemThyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cel...
  • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
  • Tie2 Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Tie2 Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Tie2/Tek receptor tyrosine kinase plays a pivotal role in vascular and hematopoietic development and is expressed exclusively on endothelial lineage. Tie2 interacts with a group of ligands belong...
  • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
  • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
  • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
  • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
  • p38MAPK events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p38MAPK events, organism-specific biosystemNGF induces sustained activation of p38, a member of the MAPK family (Morooka T, Nishida E, 1998). Both p38 and the ERKs appear to be involved in neurite outgrowth and differentiation caused by NGF i...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
GTPase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein complex binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ERBB2 signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
MAPK cascade TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Ras protein signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
axon guidance TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
establishment of protein localization to Golgi IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
leukocyte migration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi apparatus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Golgi membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
tertiary granule membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Preferred Names
GTPase NRas
Names
N-ras protein part 4
neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog
neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog
transforming protein N-Ras
v-ras neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007572.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..17438
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_92

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002524.4NP_002515.1  GTPase NRas

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002515.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL096773, AW021410, AY941101, BC005219, BC013214
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS877.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01111
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5U091
    Related
    ENSP00000358548, OTTHUMP00000013879, ENST00000369535, OTTHUMT00000033395
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04138
    Location:3164
    H_N_K_Ras_like; Ras GTPase family containing H-Ras,N-Ras and K-Ras4A/4B
    smart00173
    Location:16166
    RAS; Ras subfamily of RAS small GTPases

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Range
    114704464..114716894 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018912.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    115361892..115374317 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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