U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

MDK midkine [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4192, updated on 4-Dec-2022

Summary

Official Symbol
MDKprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
midkineprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:6972
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000110492 MIM:162096; AllianceGenome:HGNC:6972
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MK; ARAP; NEGF2
Summary
This gene encodes a member of a small family of secreted growth factors that binds heparin and responds to retinoic acid. The encoded protein promotes cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, in particular during tumorigenesis. This gene has been targeted as a therapeutic for a variety of different disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
Expression
Broad expression in ovary (RPKM 88.5), endometrium (RPKM 55.5) and 14 other tissues See more
Orthologs
NEW
Try the new Gene table
Try the new Transcript table

Genomic context

See MDK in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11p11.2
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
110 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 11 NC_000011.10 (46380784..46383837)
110 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 11 NC_060935.1 (46536860..46539912)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (46402334..46405387)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 11965 Neighboring gene diacylglycerol kinase zeta Neighboring gene microRNA 4688 Neighboring gene cholinergic receptor muscarinic 4 Neighboring gene autophagy and beclin 1 regulator 1 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S10 pseudogene 19 Neighboring gene microRNA 3160-1 Neighboring gene microRNA 3160-2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ27379

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables chondroitin sulfate binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables growth factor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables growth factor activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables heparan sulfate binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables heparin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in T cell activation involved in immune response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in adrenal gland development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in behavioral fear response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cell differentiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cerebellar granular layer development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cerebral cortex development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cytoskeleton organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in defecation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in dentate gyrus development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in estrous cycle ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in glial cell projection elongation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of cell adhesion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of epithelial cell apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of inflammatory response to wounding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of ossification ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in nervous system development NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in oogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of T cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of artery morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel branching IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cartilage development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of hepatocyte proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of inflammatory response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of inflammatory response to wounding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-12 production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of keratinocyte proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte cell-cell adhesion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron projection development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron projection development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of neutrophil extravasation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in regulation of bone remodeling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of chondrocyte differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in response to auditory stimulus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in response to glucocorticoid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to wounding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in response to xenobiotic stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in short-term memory IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in tissue regeneration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in cell projection IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
colocalizes_with collagen-containing extracellular matrix HDA PubMed 
located_in cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
midkine
Names
amphiregulin-associated protein
midgestation and kidney protein
neurite growth-promoting factor 2
neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 2
retinoic acid inducible factor

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

NEW Try the new Transcript table

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001012333.3NP_001012333.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001012333.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC116021, AI494596, BC011704, BI915189, BM016739
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7919.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21741, Q9UCC7
    Related
    ENSP00000378932.1, ENST00000395565.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:37116
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family
  2. NM_001012334.2NP_001012334.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001012334.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (a). Variants 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI494596, AK130889
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7919.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21741, Q9UCC7
    Related
    ENSP00000352852.2, ENST00000359803.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:37116
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family
  3. NM_001270550.1NP_001257479.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001257479.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC116021, AI494596, AK309963, CN266369
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7919.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21741, Q9UCC7
    Related
    ENSP00000385451.2, ENST00000405308.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:37116
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family
  4. NM_001270551.3NP_001257480.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001257480.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC116021, AI494596, BF684205, BI915189, BX346163
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7919.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21741, Q9UCC7
    Related
    ENSP00000384034.1, ENST00000407067.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:37116
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family
  5. NM_001270552.3NP_001257481.1  midkine isoform b precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001257481.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) differs in the 5' UTR, and lacks an exon in the coding region, but maintains the reading frame, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (b) is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI494596, DQ323888
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59226.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21741
    Related
    ENSP00000378936.4, ENST00000395569.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01091
    Location:2672
    PTN_MK_C; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, C-terminal domain
  6. NM_002391.6NP_002382.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002382.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC116021, BC011704, BM887813
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7919.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P21741, Q9UCC7
    Related
    ENSP00000378933.4, ENST00000395566.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:37116
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family

RNA

  1. NR_073039.3 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) uses an alternate 5' exon and lacks an internal exon, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because it lacks an in-frame ORF, compared to variant 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI494596, BM887813, CN266354

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 110 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    46380784..46383837
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060935.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    46536860..46539912
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)