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Mdk midkine [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ]

Gene ID: 17242, updated on 8-Feb-2024

Summary

Official Symbol
Mdkprovided by MGI
Official Full Name
midkineprovided by MGI
Primary source
MGI:MGI:96949
See related
Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000027239 AllianceGenome:MGI:96949
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
VALIDATED
Organism
Mus musculus
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Glires; Rodentia; Myomorpha; Muroidea; Muridae; Murinae; Mus; Mus
Also known as
MK; Mek
Summary
This gene encodes a secreted growth factor that belongs to the pleiotrophin/midkine heparin-binding protein family and functions in a variety of biological processes. The encoded cytokine promotes the growth, differentiation, survival and migration of several target cells including leucocytes involved in inflammation. This protein plays a role in the formation of scar tissue and intraperitoneal adhesions, and promotes neurite outgrowth and neuron survival. The protein encoded by this gene is associated with obesity and inhibition of insulin signaling in fat cells. A pseudogene of this gene is present on chromosome 11. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
Expression
Biased expression in limb E14.5 (RPKM 195.6), CNS E11.5 (RPKM 179.1) and 10 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See Mdk in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2 E1; 2 50.63 cM
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2024_02 current GRCm39 (GCF_000001635.27) 2 NC_000068.8 (91760149..91762348, complement)
108.20200622 previous assembly GRCm38.p6 (GCF_000001635.26) 2 NC_000068.7 (91929805..91932297, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000068.8Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene STARR-seq mESC enhancer starr_05122 Neighboring gene harbinger transposase derived 1 Neighboring gene dyskeratosis congenita 1, dyskerin homolog pseudogene Neighboring gene autophagy/beclin 1 regulator 1 Neighboring gene STARR-seq mESC enhancer starr_05123 Neighboring gene CapStarr-seq enhancer MGSCv37_chr2:91788365-91788474 Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E2042 Neighboring gene cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 Neighboring gene predicted gene, 39876 Neighboring gene CapStarr-seq enhancer MGSCv37_chr2:91797390-91797604 Neighboring gene microRNA 6999 Neighboring gene diacylglycerol kinase zeta Neighboring gene STARR-seq mESC enhancer starr_05126 Neighboring gene cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 Neighboring gene STARR-positive B cell enhancer ABC_E4479

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: Mouse ENCODE transcriptome data
  • Description: RNA profiling data sets generated by the Mouse ENCODE project.
  • BioProject: PRJNA66167
  • Publication: PMID 25409824
  • Analysis date: n/a

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Variation

Alleles

Alleles of this type are documented at Mouse Genome Informatics  (MGI)
  • Targeted (3)  1 citation
  • Endonuclease-mediated (2) 

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Gene Ontology Provided by MGI

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables chondroitin sulfate binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables growth factor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables growth factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables heparan sulfate binding ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
enables heparin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables heparin binding ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in T cell activation involved in immune response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in adrenal gland development ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in behavioral fear response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cell migration ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in cerebellar granular layer development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cerebral cortex development IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cytoskeleton organization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in defecation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in dentate gyrus development IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
involved_in estrous cycle IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in glial cell projection elongation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in hippocampus development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in intracellular signal transduction ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within multicellular organism development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of epithelial cell apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of inflammatory response to wounding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of ossification IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in oogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of T cell differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of artery morphogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel branching ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cartilage development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cell adhesion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cell migration ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of hepatocyte proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of inflammatory response ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of inflammatory response to wounding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-12 production ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of keratinocyte proliferation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte cell-cell adhesion ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron migration ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron projection development ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neutrophil extravasation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell chemotaxis ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of behavior IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of bone remodeling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of chondrocyte differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to auditory stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to wounding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to wounding ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
involved_in short-term memory IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in tissue regeneration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in cell projection ISO
Inferred from Sequence Orthology
more info
 
located_in extracellular region IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
midkine
Names
retanoic acid-responsive protein
retinoic acid-induced differentiation factor
retinoic acid-responsive protein

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001012335.3NP_001012335.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001012335.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL731772
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS16440.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P12025
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000088090.6, ENSMUST00000090602.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:34113
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family
  2. NM_001012336.3NP_001012336.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001012336.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL731772
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS16440.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P12025
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000068413.7, ENSMUST00000069423.13
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:34113
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family
  3. NM_001291481.2NP_001278410.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001278410.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL731772
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS16440.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P12025
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000106941.2, ENSMUST00000111309.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:34113
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family
  4. NM_001291482.2NP_001278411.1  midkine isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001278411.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL731772
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl02505
    Location:163
    PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain
  5. NM_001291483.2NP_001278412.1  midkine isoform c precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001278412.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL731772
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q2LEK5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl02505
    Location:3479
    PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain
  6. NM_001420412.1NP_001407341.1  midkine isoform b

    Status: VALIDATED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL731772
  7. NM_010784.6NP_034914.1  midkine isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_034914.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL731772
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS16440.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P12025
    Related
    ENSMUSP00000028672.7, ENSMUST00000028672.13
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart00193
    Location:34113
    PTN; Pleiotrophin / midkine family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001635.27-RS_2024_02

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCm39 C57BL/6J

Genomic

  1. NC_000068.8 Reference GRCm39 C57BL/6J

    Range
    91760149..91762348 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011239335.2XP_011237637.1  midkine isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011237637.1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl02505
    Location:163
    PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain