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ARRB2 arrestin beta 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 409, updated on 26-Jan-2024

Summary

Official Symbol
ARRB2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
arrestin beta 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:712
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000141480 MIM:107941; AllianceGenome:HGNC:712
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ARB2; ARR2; BARR2
Summary
Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause specific dampening of cellular responses to stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or sensory signals. Arrestin beta 2, like arrestin beta 1, was shown to inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor function in vitro. It is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system and may play a role in the regulation of synaptic receptors. Besides the brain, a cDNA for arrestin beta 2 was isolated from thyroid gland, and thus it may also be involved in hormone-specific desensitization of TSH receptors. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
Expression
Broad expression in bone marrow (RPKM 69.2), appendix (RPKM 43.9) and 21 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See ARRB2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
17p13.2
Exon count:
17
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 17 NC_000017.11 (4710632..4721497)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 17 NC_060941.1 (4600371..4611146)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (4613927..4624792)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47187 Neighboring gene proline, glutamate and leucine rich protein 1 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47196 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47199 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47200 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47201 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47204 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47205 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47206 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47207 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47209 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 11544 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47211 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47214 Neighboring gene PELP1 divergent transcript Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S12 pseudogene 29 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 8042 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 11545 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_47220 Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr17:4621547-4622746 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak2699 silencer Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr17:4634559-4635378 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr17:4641736-4642641 Neighboring gene mediator complex subunit 11 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr17:4642642-4643546 Neighboring gene C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 Neighboring gene zinc finger MYND-type containing 15

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Pol gag-pol HIV-1 Pol is identified to have a physical interaction with arrestin, beta 2 (ARRB2) in human HEK293 and/or Jurkat cell lines by using affinity tagging and purification mass spectrometry analyses PubMed
Tat tat Overexpression of HIV-1 Tat results in a nonspecific activation of the expression of beta-arrestin PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol HIV-1 PR is identified to have a physical interaction with arrestin, beta 2 (ARRB2) in human HEK293 and/or Jurkat cell lines by using affinity tagging and purification mass spectrometry analyses PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Clone Names

  • DKFZp686L0365

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables D1 dopamine receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables G protein-coupled receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables angiotensin receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables angiotensin receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables molecular adaptor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase B binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables signaling receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in G protein-coupled receptor internalization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in G protein-coupled receptor internalization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in G protein-coupled receptor internalization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in G protein-coupled receptor internalization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in adult walking behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cell chemotaxis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway by arrestin IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in dopamine receptor signaling pathway NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in excitatory postsynaptic potential NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-12 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-6 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of protein ubiquitination IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of receptor internalization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in postsynaptic signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in protein transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in protein ubiquitination IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in receptor internalization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in clathrin-coated pit IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
is_active_in cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
is_active_in cytoplasm IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytoplasmic vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in endocytic vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in glutamatergic synapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
located_in postsynapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
beta-arrestin-2
Names
arrestin 3
non-visual arrestin-3

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001257328.2NP_001244257.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001244257.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (3).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB209786, AK297181, BC007427, BG723452
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58504.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K4I6
    Related
    ENSP00000403701.3, ENST00000412477.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart01017
    Location:215370
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    pfam00339
    Location:19196
    Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
  2. NM_001257329.2NP_001244258.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of an exon and uses an alternate splice junction at the 3' end of another exon, that causes a frameshift. The resulting isoform (4) lacks an alternate internal segment and has a shorter and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC007427, BC095450, BG723452
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59276.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    K7ENA6
    Related
    ENSP00000466857.1, ENST00000575877.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart01017
    Location:194264
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    pfam00339
    Location:19175
    Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
  3. NM_001257330.2NP_001244259.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001244259.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of an exon and uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 5' end of another exon compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (5) lacks an alternate internal segment and contains another alternate internal segment compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC007427, BG723452, DQ664180
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K4I6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart01017
    Location:194349
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    pfam00339
    Location:19175
    Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
  4. NM_001257331.2NP_001244260.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 6

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001244260.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks an alternate in-frame exon, uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of an exon, and uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 5' end of another exon compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (6) lacks two alternate internal segments and contains another alternate internal segment compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK097542, BC007427, BG723452, DQ664180
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58505.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K4I6
    Related
    ENSP00000341895.2, ENST00000346341.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart01017
    Location:179334
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    cl22903
    Location:19160
    Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
  5. NM_001330064.2NP_001316993.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 7

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (8) has multiple differences compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (7) is shorter than isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC091153, BC007427
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS82039.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q68DZ5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart01017
    Location:2157
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
  6. NM_004313.4NP_004304.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004304.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of an exon compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (1) lacks an alternate internal segment compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF106941, BC007427, BG723452
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11050.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    B4DLW0, B5B0C0, B7WPL3, D3DTK2, H0Y688, P32121, Q0Z8D3, Q2PP19, Q6ICT3, Q8N7Y2, Q9UEQ6
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K4I6
    Related
    ENSP00000269260.2, ENST00000269260.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart01017
    Location:194349
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    pfam00339
    Location:19175
    Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
  7. NM_199004.2NP_945355.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_945355.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon and uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of another exon compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (2) lacks two alternate internal segments compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF106941, AK097542, BC007427, BG723452
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11051.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K4I6
    Related
    ENSP00000370898.6, ENST00000381488.10
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart01017
    Location:179334
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    cl22903
    Location:19160
    Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain

RNA

  1. NR_047516.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an alternate coding exon compared to isoform 3, that causes a frameshift. The resulting transcript could encode a 217 aa isoform but instead is thought to be non-protein coding due to the presence of an upstream open reading frame with a strong Kozak signal. Translation beginning at that start site renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB209786, BC007427, BG723452

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    4710632..4721497
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_047436066.1XP_047292022.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

  2. XM_047436067.1XP_047292023.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X3

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q68DZ5
    Related
    ENSP00000465296.1, ENST00000572457.5
  3. XM_024450752.2XP_024306520.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart01017
    Location:2157
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
  4. XM_024450753.2XP_024306521.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart01017
    Location:2157
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
  5. XM_011523858.3XP_011522160.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X2

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K4I6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart01017
    Location:225380
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    pfam00339
    Location:50206
    Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
  6. XM_047436062.1XP_047292018.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

  7. XM_047436065.1XP_047292021.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X4

  8. XM_047436063.1XP_047292019.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

  9. XM_047436064.1XP_047292020.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X3

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q68DZ5
  10. XM_017024645.2XP_016880134.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    smart01017
    Location:2157
    Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060941.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    4600371..4611146
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_054316121.1XP_054172096.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

  2. XM_054316122.1XP_054172097.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X3

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q68DZ5
  3. XM_054316123.1XP_054172098.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

  4. XM_054316124.1XP_054172099.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

  5. XM_054316119.1XP_054172094.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X2

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K4I6
  6. XM_054316120.1XP_054172095.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X4

  7. XM_054316125.1XP_054172100.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1