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LPA lipoprotein(a) [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4018, updated on 26-Feb-2024

Summary

Official Symbol
LPAprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
lipoprotein(a)provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:6667
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000198670 MIM:152200; AllianceGenome:HGNC:6667
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
LP; AK38; APOA
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a serine proteinase that inhibits the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator I. The encoded protein constitutes a substantial portion of lipoprotein(a) and is proteolytically cleaved, resulting in fragments that attach to atherosclerotic lesions and promote thrombogenesis. Elevated plasma levels of this protein are linked to atherosclerosis. Depending on the individual, the encoded protein contains 2-43 copies of kringle-type domains. The allele represented here contains 15 copies of the kringle-type repeats and corresponds to that found in the reference genome sequence. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
Expression
Restricted expression toward liver (RPKM 48.1) See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See LPA in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6q25.3-q26
Exon count:
39
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 6 NC_000006.12 (160531482..160664275, complement)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 6 NC_060930.1 (161783172..162011762, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (160952514..161085307, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124901453 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:160807441-160807942 Neighboring gene solute carrier family 22 member 3 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25402 Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:160907332-160908531 Neighboring gene lipoprotein(a) like 2 (pseudogene) Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17759 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124901454 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17760 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17761 Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161025992-161027191 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161106525-161107079 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17762 Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161158745-161159944 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25403 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17763 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17764 Neighboring gene plasminogen Neighboring gene plasminogen-like protein B Neighboring gene NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161200290-161200791 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25404 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25405 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25406 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_91154 Neighboring gene BRD4-independent group 4 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161262159-161263358 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC112267969 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161298543-161299475 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161303800-161304432 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak6293 silencer Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak6294 silencer Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161309865-161310670 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak6295 silencer

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
LIPOPROTEIN(a) QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS
MedGen: C5394134 OMIM: 618807 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

EBI GWAS Catalog

Description
A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs).
EBI GWAS Catalog
Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genetic and clinical correlates of early-outgrowth colony-forming units.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genetic associations with valvular calcification and aortic stenosis.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genetic determinants of statin-induced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction: the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genetic variants in PLG, LPA and SIGLEC 14 as well as smoking contribute to plasma plasminogen levels.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genetic variants, plasma lipoprotein(a) levels, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among two prospective cohorts of type 2 diabetes.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genome-wide association study evaluating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity at baseline and after rosuvastatin therapy.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genome-wide association study of genetic determinants of LDL-c response to atorvastatin therapy: importance of Lp(a).
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genome-wide association study of plasma lipoprotein(a) levels identifies multiple genes on chromosome 6q.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genome-wide characterization of shared and distinct genetic components that influence blood lipid levels in ethnically diverse human populations.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster as a risk locus for coronary artery disease.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Novel association to the proprotein convertase PCSK7 gene locus revealed by analysing soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Shared genetic susceptibility to ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease: a genome-wide analysis of common variants.
EBI GWAS Catalog

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables apolipoprotein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables endopeptidase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables endopeptidase inhibitor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables fibronectin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables heparin binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables signaling receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in blood circulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in lipid metabolic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in lipid transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in proteolysis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in extracellular region NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
part_of plasma lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
apolipoprotein(a)
Names
antiangiogenic AK38 protein
apo(a)
lipoprotein, Lp(a)
lp(a)
NP_005568.2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_016147.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    7101..139894
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_005577.4NP_005568.2  apolipoprotein(a) precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005568.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL109933, AL596089
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS43523.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P08519, Q5VTD7, Q9UD88
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q1HP67
    Related
    ENSP00000321334.6, ENST00000316300.10
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    smart00020
    Location:18202033
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease
    smart00130
    Location:16141695
    KR; Kringle domain
    cd00190
    Location:18202034
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...
    pfam00051
    Location:28105
    Kringle; Kringle domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    160531482..160664275 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060930.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    161783172..162011762 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)