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GSTA2 glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2939, updated on 8-Jul-2018
Official Symbol
GSTA2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glutathione S-transferase alpha 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4627
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000244067 MIM:138360; Vega:OTTHUMG00000016263
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GST2; GTA2; GTH2; GSTA2-2
Summary
Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes function in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding these enzymes are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of some drugs. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, located in a cluster mapped to chromosome 6, are the most abundantly expressed glutathione S-transferases in liver. In addition to metabolizing bilirubin and certain anti-cancer drugs in the liver, the alpha class of these enzymes exhibit glutathione peroxidase activity thereby protecting the cells from reactive oxygen species and the products of peroxidation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Biased expression in liver (RPKM 492.6), kidney (RPKM 310.5) and 6 other tissues See more
Orthologs
See GSTA2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p12.2
Exon count:
8
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 6 NC_000006.12 (52750087..52763563, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (52614885..52628361, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene glutathione S-transferase alpha 8, pseudogene Neighboring gene glutathione S-transferase alpha 7, pseudogene Neighboring gene glutathione S-transferase alpha 12, pseudogene Neighboring gene glutathione S-transferase alpha 1

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor (part of the group of nuclear receptors) that responds to the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. It regulates genes involved xenobiotic m...
  • Biological oxidations, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Biological oxidations, organism-specific biosystemAll organisms are constantly exposed to foreign chemicals every day. These can be man-made (drugs, industrial chemicals) or natural (alkaloids, toxins from plants and animals). Uptake is usually via ...
  • Chemical carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemical carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemIt has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers. Human carcinogens ...
  • Chemical carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemical carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemIt has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers. Human carcinogens ...
  • Constitutive Androstane Receptor Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Constitutive Androstane Receptor Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor and functions as a sensor for xenobiotics. It regulates transcription of genes encoding proteins in metabolism and excretion of xenobi...
  • Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450, organism-specific biosystem
    Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
  • Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450, conserved biosystem
    Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
  • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
  • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
  • Glutathione conjugation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glutathione conjugation, organism-specific biosystemGlutathione S-Transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) are another major set of phase II conjugation enzymes. They can be found in the cytosol as well as being microsomal membrane-bound. Cytosolic GSTs are e...
  • Glutathione metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutathione metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Glutathione metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutathione metabolism, conserved biosystem
    Glutathione metabolism
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, organism-specific biosystem
    Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
  • Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, conserved biosystem
    Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
  • NRF2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    NRF2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemNRF2 is part of a group of transcription factors called nuclear receptors. It is activated under oxidative stress conditions and subsequently activates several antioxidative genes and proteins.
  • Phase II conjugation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Phase II conjugation, organism-specific biosystemPhase II of biotransformation is concerned with conjugation, that is using groups from cofactors to react with functional groups present or introduced from phase I on the compound. The enzymes involv...
  • Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
  • Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
  • Transcriptional activation by NRF2, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Transcriptional activation by NRF2, organism-specific biosystemBased on [http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v3/n10/fig_tab/nrc1189_F4.html Surh, 2003, figure 4]. Nrf2 induces the expression of many antioxidant enzymes. It is therefore thought to be involved in ox...
  • glutathione-mediated detoxification I, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    glutathione-mediated detoxification I, conserved biosystemPlease note: This is a general detoxification pathway, where the first step can be catalyzed by many different enzymes, collectively known as glutathione transferases, or GSTs. In the first reaction,...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC10525

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
glutathione transferase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
glutathione transferase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
epithelial cell differentiation IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
glutathione derivative biosynthetic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
glutathione metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
interleukin-12-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular exosome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Preferred Names
glutathione S-transferase A2
Names
GST HA subunit 2
GST class-alpha member 2
GST-gamma
S-(hydroxyalkyl)glutathione lyase A2
glutathione S-alkyltransferase A2
glutathione S-aralkyltransferase A2
glutathione S-aryltransferase A2
liver GST2
testis tissue sperm-binding protein Li 59n
NP_000837.3
XP_011512834.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029430.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..18477
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000846.4NP_000837.3  glutathione S-transferase A2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000837.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK292602, AL109918, BC002895, BU685446, H62933
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4944.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P09210
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A140VKE2, A8K987
    Related
    ENSP00000420168.1, OTTHUMP00000017883, ENST00000493422.2, OTTHUMT00000043589
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00057
    Location:1198
    PTZ00057; glutathione s-transferase; Provisional
    cd03208
    Location:86220
    GST_C_Alpha; C-terminal, alpha helical domain of Class Alpha Glutathione S-transferases
    cd03077
    Location:482
    GST_N_Alpha; GST_N family, Class Alpha subfamily; GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins involved in cellular detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic alkylating agents, including carcinogens, ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    52750087..52763563 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011514532.3XP_011512834.1  glutathione S-transferase A2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011512834.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P09210
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A140VKE2
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00057
    Location:1198
    PTZ00057; glutathione s-transferase; Provisional
    cd03208
    Location:86220
    GST_C_Alpha; C-terminal, alpha helical domain of Class Alpha Glutathione S-transferases
    cd03077
    Location:482
    GST_N_Alpha; GST_N family, Class Alpha subfamily; GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins involved in cellular detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic alkylating agents, including carcinogens, ...
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